The Fresh Loaf

A Community of Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts.

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Aug 31, 2021.

Goals here are to use 100% Patel brand stone-ground whole grain durum, 1.33% salt in order to have about 150 grams sodium per tortilla, and to use both commercial yeast and baking powder for a fluffier and softer tortilla. Salt is 39.34% sodium by weight.

I try to use  30 grams flour per tortilla, and then add a few grams to the batch because some dough gets lost along the way.


For 5 tortillas:

152 grams Patel brand stone-ground whole grain durum, product of Canada. ($8 per 20 pound bag, $.40 per pound.)

3/16 tsp baking powder, Rumsford.

1/16 tsp instrant dry yeast, Fleischmann.

2.0 grams Himalayan pink salt. 1.32%.

101.3 grams bottled spring water. 67%.

Hand-mixed and hand-kneaded for a few minutes.

Rested dough for 1 hour, 23 minutes.

Worked in 4.5 grams of grapeseed oil. 3%.

Rested dough for 23 minutes.

Put dough in a sealed plastic bag, and placed it in refrigerator.

Overnight in fridge is enough waiting time.

The following was 4 days later.


Rolled out to 7" using AP flour to keep from sticking. Ok, so it's not 100% WW any more, but at this point, WW durum doesn't have enough time to absorb any moisture. It would come out underbaked and gritty.

Cooked in a skillet on an electric burner, setting 4 out of 10, until spots appeared. Flipped, added turkey pepperoni and shredded cheese.  Let it cook about 30 seconds more, folded it in half, and flipped/cooked until both half-sides were nicely spotted.

Voilà, pepperoni quesadilla.


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August 27, 2021. 56th bake. 100% WW tortilla / focaccia dough.

I usually don't blog my tortilla "bakes," but this came out good enough to document so I can remember it and share.


53 grams Patel brand stone-ground whole grain durum flour, product of Canada. 25%

53 grams Swad brand Sharbati Gold whole wheat flour, product of India. (I have some doubt as to whether this is 100% whole grain.) 25%

106 grams Bob's Red Mill stone-ground whole wheat (hard red wheat), product of USA.  50%

Total flour: 212.

4.6 grams Himalayan pink salt.  2%

1/16 tsp instant dry yeast, Fleischmann.

1/4 tsp baking powder, Rumford.

143 grams bottled spring water.  143 / 212 = 67% hydration.

Mixed and then kneaded for about 3 minutes. Finished kneading at 5:50 pm.

Let it rest 1 hour 15 min.

7:05 pm, worked/kneaded in 6.3 grams of grape seed oil. 3%  

The reason I let it rest before adding oil is that oil interferes with how the whole grain durum absorbs water.

7:12 pm, covered bowl with cling film and placed in fridge.

Left it in fridge overnight.

Next day, 8:00 am. Weighed out a 50 gram piece of dough.

Flattened it a little by hand, dusted both sides with AP flour to keep things from sticking, and rolled it out to about 7.5 inches, or 19 cm.

Cooked it on a cast iron griddle at medium-low heat,  until brown spots appeared, flipped, and cooked 2nd side until brown spots appeared.

Put in a plastic tortilla warmer for moisture to equalize and for it to soften.

After about seven minites, it was nice and soft.

I forgot to take pics.

This combination of baking powder and yeast seems good for flat bread.

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June 15, 2021. 53rd TFL bake.

The only things I measured:

  • 3/8 tsp of salt,
  • 10 grams dry whole chia seed, and
  • 40 grams water to soak the chia seed.

Everything else was eyeballed, hence "some of this, some of that" (sotsot):

  • Some SD discard refreshed into a stiff starter/biga yesterday, an hour or so at room temp then overnight in fridge. Was KA bread flour, then  added WW durum and some AP.
  • More Patel brand stone ground WW durum.
  • Some Golden Temple durum atta, white/red bag.
  • Some quick oats (not instant oats).
  • Some dry whole poppy seeds.
  • Some Arrowhead Mills organic All Purpose flour, sifted.
  • Some Bob's Red Mill stone ground Whole wheat, red wheat.

Mixed. Kneaded a little. Let it bulk ferment with some intermitent kneading/folding. Didn't time it. When it seemed ready, folded and shaped, and put in 8" inner diameter (8.5" outer diameter) banneton, with liner, and liner was dusted with 50/50 mix of rice flour and white bread/AP flour. Banneton fits cast iron plate perfectly, but dough did not fill banneton.

Baked in toaster oven on a Lodge 9.25 " cast iron  serving plate.  36 minutes total. 28 minutes with bottom-heat only, last 8 minutes with bottom and top heat.  Rotated the loaf 90 degrees, 3 times, every 2 minutes, during those last 8 minutes.  


  • 2 min.
  • rotate 90 degrees.
  • 2 min.
  • rotate 90 devrees.
  • 2 min.
  • rotate 90 degrees.
  • 2 min.

First 20 min at 425 F thermostat setting. Last 16 minutes at 400 F. Bottom still burned.

The paper plate is 9" in diameter.

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June 9, 2021.

So I've been playing a lot with stone-ground WW durum. It makes great flatbread/chapatis at 100%, and great egg-less noodles at 50% mixed with 50% Golden Temple white/red bag durum.

I wrote somewhere, that anything over 33% WW durum in a leavened loaf bread just doesn't seem to be workable.  It becomes a brick, or a rubbery sponge.

Mariana mentioned that there is a popular Russian flour mix that uses 25% durum, so I thought I'd play with that number.


  • 500 g total flour.
  • 25% WW stone-ground durum, Patel brand. $.40/pound. $8 per 20 pound bag.
  • 40% Bob's Red Mill WW red wheat, stone-ground.
  • 15% Golden Temple durum, white/red bag. Has some bran, but not much.
  • 10% KA bread flour.
  • 10% Arrowhead Mills organic AP.  Bought it on sale. Need to use it up. Clumpy. Needed sifting.

Started with 350 g water.

Let it rest several hours.

Pulled off 40 g of dough and set it aside to make a chapati. (Needed to add flour to it.)

Worked in 16 g water.

Worked in another 16 g water.

Worked in 57 g of cold 100% hydration starter, last fed 6 days ago, but stirred every 2 days.

Worked in 6 g of plain olive oil.

Lots of hand kneading.

Bulk ferment. Several stretch and folds.


Proofed in banneton.

Baked in a Lodge 10.25" cast iron pan with two short handles, in a counter-top toaster oven, Ambiano brand, from Aldi. 450 F. Total 42 minutes.   A 9" diameter baking stone was placed on the lower burner guards, under the oven rack.  Cast iron pan was sitting on the oven rack, lower position, so there was air space between the pan and the stone.  Pan and stone were pre-heated at 450 F., the oven max.

Used bottom heat only for first 35 minutes. Loaf was not covered with anything. To brown the top, I used bottom and top heat for the  last 7 minutes, rotating the pan 90 degrees every 2 minutes to keep it even.

I did not keep meticulous records, so the timings may not be accurate.


Came out great. Cooled it for 90 minutes, tried some. Excellent crumb. Top crust okay. Bottom crust over-baked, almost burned.  Plan is to reduce heat next time to 425 after the first 10 minutes.

I had to give it away to a neighbor or I would have eaten it all in one sitting.


Mariana and the Russians are right.  25% WW durum is good. 


idaveindy's picture

Almost any bread flour, from white to whole wheat will do.

Here's where I got my inspiration, but exact measurements/weights are not given:

For a variation, see:

(Chapati / paratha, to-may-to / to-mah-to.) There is a video in each one too.

Here are some formulas I've worked up:

Bob's Red Mill WW (red wheat): 2% salt(3), 68% H2O, 2% oil(1).

50% AP, 50% Bread flour: 2% salt, 55.8% H2O, 2% oil(1).

Stone ground whole grain durum: 2% salt, 66.7% H2O, 3% oil after 2 hours(2)(4).

Sher Fiber Wala durum: 2% salt, 74-75% H2O, 1-2% oil(1). Let rest at least one hour after adding oil for best results.

Golden Temple durum, white/red bag: 2% salt, 62-63% H2O, 2% oil(1).

Swad durum semolina (the gritty stuff): 2% salt, 57% H2O, 2% oil after 30 minutes(4).

Regular durum semolina is low bran (it has some) so it doesn't take much water.  Also, because you have to let chapati  dough rest a while, the grittiness eventually goes away. 

Note (1): mix/knead to a homogenous dough before adding oil. I like the flour to be hydrated first, then get to the oil.

Note (2): this particular flour takes a long time to hydrate, so give it at least two hours before adding oil.

Note (3): In all these, salt can be reduced or eliminated if the chapati is to be served with a salty/savory dish.

Note (4): In the cases where you have to let the dough rest at least 30 minutes before adding oil, let it rest at least 15 minutes after adding oil.


Important: You must let the dough rest at least 30 minutes after mixing before rolling out. If using all white flour, you can rest it for less time, but at least 15 minutes.


The uncooked dough can keep a day or two in the fridge. I use a plastic bag with the air squeezed out.


Tortillas/chapatis are as much about rolling technique and cooking technique as they are about the ratio of ingredients.  

For instance, rolling out, wiping on a little oil and flour, foldng, and rolling again, gives a layered chapati. But this is optional.

Use a sprinkle, maybe 1/8 tsp of white flour per side, to keep the chapati from sticking when you roll it out.  This should also keep it from sticking on the griddle. White (refined) flour is best for this step as it absorbs into the surface quickly.

Coarsely ground flour at this point will not have time to soften. So use store-bought white flour for dusting at this point, if using home-milled flour for the chapati.

You want the surface of the chapati to be dry enough to not stick, but the inside of the chapati needs moisture that will eventually soften the chapati as it cools after cooking.  

I like about 30 grams of _flour_ per chapati, so for the BRM-WW above that would be 30*1.72 = 51.6 grams of dough.   

I roll these out to about 7" diameter.

These are cooked on a dry flat griddle or pan/skillet on the stove top. The video in the above Madhura's recipe shows how.

There are two ways to go when cooking: lower heat (electric burner setting 2 to 3 out of 10) for 2-3 min per side, or medium (electric burner setting 4 to 5 out of 10) for 45-60 seconds per side.

I give 30 seconds to the first side, flip, then give it 60 seconds checking to see where brown spots are, pressing down with spatula or paper towel where needed, flip again, and give it 30 seconds, checking and pressing where needed.

You can let it puff up, using a spatula to help it along, or poke the bubbles to keep it flat.  I like keeping it flat.  See Madhura's chapati video (1st link above) for how to roll it and cook it to get it completely puffed up.

You want to cook each side until you get brown spots, but don't make the surface crispy, or it won't soften after cooking. 

After cooking, it needs to be enclosed in something so that the moisture equalizes, and the surface softens.  I give mine 15 minutes. More or less might work too.

I use a "tortilla keeper" like this one:

This is the tricky part, but you have to cook it just right in the first place so that the inside is cooked to "done" and at the same time enough moisture is left to soften the whole thing. So you also have to get the dough to the sweet spot in terms of hydration too.


If you are going to re-cook the chapatis as part of a recipe, such as a quesadilla or as a base for a pizza, then you could undercook one side (no spots), the side that will be exposed to the hot surface in your quesadilla/pizza.


Tip: Chapatis are like pancakes, in that I usually mess up the first one in a batch. ;-)



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Mix flours. Autolyse/soak, bulk ferment.  Proof overnight.

  • 470 g Patel brand stone-ground whole grain durum.

  • 470 g Bob's Red Mill whole wheat (red).
  • 65 g Arrowhead Mills organic all purpose.
  • 62 g King Arthur bread flour.
  • 39 g King Arthur bread flour in levain.
  • 1106 g total flour.
  • 917 g water, counting the water in levain, but not counting the chia's water. 83% hydration.
  • 22 g salt.


  • 16 g whole dry chia seed soaked in 64 g water.
  • 67 g roasted (in oil) sunflower seeds.

Total weight: 917 + 1106 + 22 + 80 + 67 = 2192 g. (Less whatever stuck to bowls, utensils, and hands.)



(will fill in more details later.)




idaveindy's picture


  • 468 g Patel brand stone-ground whole wheat durum. Canadian.
  • 468 g Swad brand "Sharbati Gold" whole wheat flour. Imported from India. This is a flavorful/sweet and relatively soft wheat intended for Indian flatbreads. It is considered a high quality wheat in Indian cuisine.
  • 132 g King Arthur bread flour.
  • 132 g Arrowhead Mills organic all purpose flour.
  • 468 + 468 + 132 + 132 = 1200.  Final dough flour.
  • 24 g salt. approx 2%.
  • 15 g whole chia seed, soaked in 60 g water.
  • 84 g fresh levain, 100% hydration. (Made with King Arthur Bread flour.) Approx 3.5% PFF.  .035 x 1200 = 42.   
  • total flour = 1200 + 42 = 1242.
  • 374 g water with the WW durum. (Was too much. Dough was a gluey paste.)
  • 304 g water with the Sharbati WW flour. (Intentionaliy used too little to make up for over-hydrated durum.)
  • 166 g water with the KA bread flour and AP flour.
  • 1/2 tsp Italian seasoning, 1/2 tsp ground oregano, 1/2 tsp whole fennel seeds.
  • 40 g hold-back water added in  (2 additions of 20 g each.)
  • 374 + 304 + 166 + 42 ( in levain) +  20 + 20 =  926 g water. (not counting chia soaker.)
  • Total hydration, not counting chia soaker: 926 / 1242 = 74.4%.

Thursday the 27th: Durum was mixed with just water and soaked about an hour. Sharbati was mixed with water, intentionally a little dry, and then kneaded into the overly wet durum. The combined dough mass was coated in about 1 tsp of grape-seed oil, and left to soak/autolyse an additional 4 hours.

The KABF, A.M. AP and salt were combined by themselves, hydrated with 166 g water, and the resultant dough kneaded into the durum/Sharbati main dough.

The hydrated chia and the levain were then kneaded into the main dough.

20 g water was kneaded in.

Italian seasoning, oregano, and fennel seeds were kneaded in.

Another 20 g water was kneaded in.

4 sets of stretch-and-folds.

Bulk ferment, from the addition of levain to fold/shape/banneton, was 4 hours.

11-7/8" outer diameter (11-1/4" inner diameter) banneton, linen liner dusted with rice flour and AP flour.

Overnight proof,  10 hours in fridge. No room temp proofing, neither before nor after fridge.


Friday the 28th: Baked on a 15" Lodge cast iron skillet, with an inverted stainless steel bowl as cover. 

Dough weighed 2210 g right before going in oven.  (Lost some durum yesterday, as it stuck to things.)

  • Oven preheated to 465 F.
  • covered, 450 F, 5 min.
  • covered, 425 F, 15 min.
  • covered, 400 F, 15 min.
  • uncovered, 400 F, 25 min.
  • Final internal temp : 209.1 F.  Thump sounds good.

Crumb is excellent.  Fennel and oregano were good additions. The Italian seasoning tastes off, and appears to be the only negative.


idaveindy's picture

Sunbeam, model 5833.

Free online manual:

(For future reference.)

1: Basic program:

  • 3:00 - 2:50. Mix.  10 min.
  • 2:50 - 2:30. Rest. 20 min.
  • 2:30 - 2:15. Knead. 15 min.
  • 2:15 - 1:55. Rise. 20 min.
  • 1:55 - 1:55. Deflate.
  • 1:55 - 1:00. Rise. 55 min.
  • 1:00 - 0:00. Bake. 60 min.

2: Whole wheat program:.

  • 3:40 - 3:30. Mix. 10 min.
  • 3:30 - 3:05. Rest. 25 min.
  • 3:05 - 2:45. Knead. 20 min.
  • 2:45 - 2:15. Rise. 30 min.
  • 2:15 - 2:15. Deflate.
  • 2:15 - 1:05. Rise. 70 min.
  • 1:05 - 0:00. Bake. 65 min.


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