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San Francisco Sourdough from Larraburu Brothers

as described in

https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1978/Documents/chem55_461.pdf

as interpreted by

David Snyder

February, 2019

Over many years, there has been much interest in reproducing the San Francisco Sourdough bread baked by Larraburu Brothers' bakery that closed in the early 1970's. The article referenced above seems the most likely accurate report available of Larraburu Brother's method. The following formula and methods have been extracted from that article, with a very few modifications as noted.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Bread flour (12% protein)

924

90

High gluten flour (14% protein)

100

10

Water

612

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1656

162

Note: I used King Arthur Flour AP flour (11.7% protein) and Breadtopia's "High Gluten Bread flour (14% protein).

 

Sponge

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High gluten flour

100

100

Water

50

50

Active starter

50

50

Total

200

200

One day before baking the bread (e.g., before going to bed the night before you want to bake)

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flour and mix thoroughly. Knead until all the flour is moistened.

  3. Place in a dry bowl and cover.

  4. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours

  5. Remove 50g of the fermented sponge and refrigerate for future use.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bread flour

924

Water

562

Salt

20

Sponge

150

Total

1656

Procedure

  1. In a large bowl or the bowl of a stand mixer, mix the water and sponge cut in pieces to soften the sponge.

  2. Mix the salt into the flour and add it to the mixing bowl.

  3. Mix the dough at slow speed to thoroughly mix the ingredients, then at medium speed to obtain medium gluten development. (A medium window pane.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 1 hour. (Note: The article does not specify the temperature for this step. I think room temperature is most likely.)

  5. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Pre-shape as balls. Cover with a cloth and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten. (Note: The 10-30 minute rest after pre-shaping is my addition, but it is “standard operating procedures” in most artisan bakeries.)

  6. Shape the pieces as boules or bâtards and place, seam-side up, in floured baskets or on a linen or parchment couche.

  7. Proof for 3-4 hours at 105ºF in a humid environment. (Note: I placed the formed loaves in bannetons and place the bannetons in food safe plastic bags and clip them shut. Then, I proofed the loaves in a Brød & Taylor proofing box.)

  8. One hour before baking, preheat the oven with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  9. Transfer the loaves to a peel and score as desired.

  10. Bake at 460ºF for 15 minutes with steam, then at 450ºF Convection bake for another 25 minutes in a dry oven. The loaves are done when thumping the bottom gives a “hollow sound,” the crust is nicely browned and the internal temperature of the loaves is 205ºF.

  11. Cool thoroughly before slicing.

Notes for future bake: Relatively dull crust suggests either over-proofing, insufficient steam or both.

The crumb was well-aerated, demonstrating adequate fermentation, but quite dense. It was essentially identical to other loaves I have baked with 50-60% hydration doughs. There is no danger of your jam falling through big holes onto your lap with this bread! The flavor was that of a French pain au levain - sweet and wheaty with only the subtlest lactic acid overtone. There was essentially no acetic acid tanginess. It's good white bread but not anything I would identify as "San Francisco Sourdough."

I could fiddle with the hydration and flour mix, I suppose, but I am not optimistic about the basic method ever hitting the target.

David

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dmsnyder

San Francisco Sourdough from Larraburu Brothers

as described in

https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1978/Documents/chem55_461.pdf

as interpreted by

David Snyder

February, 2019

Over many years, there has been much interest in reproducing the San Francisco Sourdough bread baked by Larraburu Brothers' bakery that closed in the early 1970's. The article referenced above seems the most likely to accurately report Larraburu Brother's method. The following formula and methods have been extracted from that article, with a very few modifications as noted.

Because of the current interest on The Fresh Loaf in this, I will post this “plan” now and update it with my own results when I have actually baked bread using this method.

 

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Bread flour (12% protein)

924

90

High gluten flour (14% protein)

100

10

Water

612

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1656

162

Note: I used King Arthur Flour AP flour (11.7% protein) and Sir Lancelot flour (14% protein).

 

Sponge

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High gluten flour

100

100

Water

50

50

Active starter

50

50

Total

200

200

One day before baking the bread (e.g., before going to bed the night before you want to bake)

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flour and mix thoroughly. Knead until all the flour is moistened.

  3. Place in a dry bowl and cover.

  4. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours

  5. Remove 50g of the fermented sponge and refrigerate for future use.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bread flour

924

Water

562

Salt

20

Sponge

150

Total

1656

Procedure

  1.  

    In a large bowl or the bowl of a stand mixer, mix the water and sponge cut in pieces to soften the sponge.

  2.  

    Mix the salt into the flour and add it to the mixing bowl.

  3. Mix the dough at slow speed to thoroughly mix the ingredients, then at medium speed to obtain medium gluten development. (A medium window pane.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 1 hour. (Note: The article does not specify the temperature for this step. I think room temperature is most likely.)

  5. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Pre-shape as balls. Cover with a cloth and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten. (Note: The 10-30 minute rest after pre-shaping is my addition, but it is “standard operating procedures” in most artisan bakeries.)

  6. Shape the pieces as boules or bâtards and place, seam-side up, in floured baskets or on a linen or parchment couche.

  7. Proof for 4 hours at 105ºF in a humid environment. (Note: I place the formed loaves in bannetons and place the bannetons in food safe plastic bags and clip them shut. Then, I proof the loaves in a Brød & Taylor proofing box.)

  8. One hour before baking, preheat the oven with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  9. Transfer the loaves to a peel and score as desired.

  10. Bake at 420ºF for 40-50 minutes (per Galal. I baked at 460ºF with steam for 15 minutes, then at 450ºF convection for 25 minutes.) The oven should be steamed for the first 15 minutes of the bake. The loaves are done when thumping the bottom gives a “hollow sound,” the crust is nicely browned and the internal temperature of the loaves is 205ºF.

  11. Cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

David

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dmsnyder

Josey Baker Whole Wheat Sourdough Bread

David Snyder

February, 2019

Browsing cookbooks at a branch library, I found Josey Baker's “Josey Baker Bread.” I have driven by and peeked into his bakery in San Francisco, but have never tasted his products. I confess I found what he charged for a slice of toast off-putting. But, folks seem to like his bread. Looking through the book, I found some recipes for 100% Whole Wheat sourdough bread. It certainly looked good in the photos, and I am still looking for my personal favorite 100% whole wheat sourdough. So, I checked out the book.

I won't comment on the book's style except to say it is an attempt to seduce some one into baking bread at home who is still a bit frightened and mystified by the whole process. It is certainly a worthy objective.

Anyway, here's my first bake of this bread.

Note: Baker does not call for a true autolyse. He combines all the ingredients in the “Final Dough” at once and, after a mix to just distribute them evenly in the dough, he lets it sit for a half hour before beginning a series of stretch and folds at half-hourly intervals. The procedure described below is what I actually did. I mixed the final dough, including the levain but not the salt, and let it rest for a period before adding the salt. This is the way I was taught at the San Francisco Baking Institute to autolyse dough when a liquid levain is used.



Total Dough

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Whole Wheat flour

508

1016

2032

100

Water

423

846

1692

83

Salt

11

21

42

2.1

Total

942

1883

3766

185.1

 

Levain

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Whole Wheat flour

50

100

200

100

Water (cool)

60

120

240

120

Sourdough starter

6

12

24

12

Total

116

232

464

232

  1. Mix the levain ingredients well in a 4-6 cup bowl. Cover well.

  2. Ferment at room temperature (72-76ºF) for 8-12 hours.

Note: The sourdough starter I used to seed the levain is 100% hydration. It is actually 70% AP, 20% WW and 10% whole rye. For purposes of the “Total Dough” formula, I treated it as if it were entirely whole wheat.

Note: Because of a social obligation, I was not able to mix the final dough right when the levain was ripe. I refrigerated the ripe levain overnight and continued the process the next morning.



Final Dough

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Whole Wheat Flour

455

910

1820

Water (warm)

360

720

1440

Salt

11

21

42

Ripe levain

116

232

464

Total

942

1883

3766

Procedures

  1. Mix the flour and water and levain to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest for 30-60 minutes. (Note: I actually autolysed for a bit over 2 hours.)

  2. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and mix it in with a spatula, spoon or your hand.

  3. Distribute the salt evenly using a pinching procedure (as described in FWSY or Tartine No. 2), alternating with stretch and folds in the bowl.

  4. Cover the bowl and ferment until increased in volume by 50% and well aerated with bubbles (about 3 hours at 80ºF). Perform stretch and folds in the bowl every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours.

  5. If making more than one loaf, divide the dough evenly into the desired number of pieces.

  6. Pre-shape piece(s) into balls. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape into boules or bâtards. Place in floured baskets and cover or place in food-safe plastic bags.

  8. Proof the loaves 3-4 hours (per Josey Baker). I proofed 1 hour at room temperature, then refrigerated to bake the next day.

  9. Pre-heat oven to 475ºF 45-60 minutes before baking.

  10. Bake either on a baking stone with steam for the first 15 minutes or in a Dutch oven, covered for the first 20 minutes. The total bake time should be 45-50 minutes, to an internal temperature of 205ºF.

  11. Remove to a cooling rack. Cool completely before slicing.

Note: Baker says one can cold retard this bread, either in bulk (after Step 4.) or as formed loaves. (after Step 8.) He does not say whether or not he would ever do both retardations.

The flour I used was Turkey Red wheat, freshly milled in a Mockmill 100 set at its finest setting. I did not sift out or remill any of the bran. The dough was soft and tacky but very manageable. It seemed to be developing some strength curing the stretch and folds, but was quite loose during shaping.

Lovely dough made with 100% home-milled Red Turkey wheat

Formed loaves, ready for a 12 hour nap at 40ºF

Baked loaves, cooling

The crumb

I sliced the bread after it had cooled for about 3 hours. The crust was chewy, except for the ears which were crunchy. The crumb was very moist and tender with a wheaty and mildly sour flavor. My experience has been that this type of bread improves after a day or so.

Happy baking!

David

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Same Day Pizza

David Snyder

February, 2019

 

When given a choice, I would always make pizza with dough leavened with sourdough. This could be a sourdough made with a three day lead time (See: http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/34452/pizza-bliss) or even dough made with sourdough “discard.” (See: http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/37179/pizza-made-sourdough-starter-discard) But, you know, sometimes I decide I want pizza for dinner tonight, not two or three days from now. I have found that the “Same-Day Straight Pizza Dough” formula from Ken Forkish's “Flour Water Salt Yeast” makes darn good pizza.

You do have to decide on pizza for dinner tonight by 8 or 9 am in order to get the dough made and ready for a 7 or 8 pm dinner. I usually plan for it before I go to bed the night before.

Note on quantities: These amounts of ingredients are for about 5 medium-sized pizzas. I usually scale the ingredients for 4 pizzas and actually make two pizzas and a quarter sheet pan of focaccia.

Note on flours: This formula works well with a variety of flour blends. You can use AP or Bread Flour entirely. You can substitute whole wheat for some of the white flour. I have made this dough with Bread Flour and 00. I found the crust less crispy and more chewy than I prefer. I have made it with all 00 flour. The flavor was wonderful, but 00 is milled to work best in a real pizza oven that heats to 700ºF or even hotter. In my home electric convection oven, the best I can do is 500ºF convection bake. Pizza dough made with 100% Italian 00 flour does not brown well. So, a mix of AP and 00 flours is the best I have found to date, giving me great flavor and beautiful performance. Well, a little whole wheat flour doesn't hurt a bit.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

All purpose flour

350

35

Caputo 00 flour

650

65

Water (90-95ºF)

700

70

Instant yeast

2

0.2

Salt

20

2

Total

1722

172.2


Procedure

  1. Measure the yeast into a small bowl. Mix it with a couple tablespoons of the heated water and put it aside.

  2. In a large bowl, mix the flours. Add the rest of the heated water and mix to fully hydrate the flours. Cover the bowl and let it sit for 30 minutes to an hour. (Autolyse)

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and scrape the dissolved yeast over the dough. Mix thoroughly. (I start by folding the dough over itself repeatedly with a silicon spatula, rotating the bowl 30º or so after each fold. I then squeeze the dough repeatedly with one hand, alternating squeezes with a series of stretch and folds. This both distributes the salt and yeast more evenly and develops the gluten further.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl. Allow the dough to ferment until almost double in volume (6-8 hours, depending on ambient temperature.) Do not under-ferment the dough. In this case, a bit over-fermented is better than under-fermented.

  5. Do a stretch and fold after one hour.
  6. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Divide the dough into pieces – 350g for 10inch pizzas; 700g or more for focaccia; etc.

  7. Form each piece into a tight ball. Flour lightly or oil lightly and refrigerate well-covered until 1-2 hours before use. They can be refrigerated until the next day, if desired. (Note: What I generally do is use a 1-quart Ziploc bag for each dough ball and spread a tablespoon or so of olive over the interior surfaces. Then I put a dough ball in each bag and refrigerate them, ideally for at least a couple of hours.)

  8. An hour or two before use, take the dough balls out of the refrigerator.

  9. Form each ball into a pizza shell by your method of choice. Top as desired and bake. (Note: I bake pizza on a pizza steel, preheated at 500ºF Convection for an hour. These pizzas baked in 8 minutes. Your time may vary depending on your oven.)

Pizza shaped, topped and ready to bake

Right out of the oven

Cornicione crumb

Enjoy!

David

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dmsnyder

I continue to work with multi-grain sourdough breads using home-milled flours. Today, I baked two loaves. Both used the same dough, a mix of Central Milling ABC flour, whole Sirvinta wheat, Spelt and Rye. The Sirvinta whole wheat is the thirstiest I have ever encountered. For today's bake, I boosted the dough hydration to 85% with good results.

I mixed the doughs for each loaf separately and folded in 20% each dried cranberries and lightly toasted pecans in one of the doughs.

Photo Gallery

I'll confess: The Cranberry-Pecan loaf was first out of the oven, and I couldn't wait for it to cool completely before having a few slices for lunch with some delicious Emmental cheese. The crust was crunchy and the crumb was very moist and tender. The cranberries mostly contributed sweetness and chewy texture. They have less presence than the sour cherries and dried figs I have baked with before. All in all, a nice combination of flavors and textures.

The "regular" loaf had a lovely crackly crust and a more open crumb than achieved with lower hydration doughs. Just about perfect, to my taste.

You may note that I most often shape these breads as boules and bake in cast iron Dutch ovens. These loaves were shaped as bâtards and baked on a pizza stone with steam. When baking on a stone, I bake at a slightly lower temperature (465ºF versus 475ºF).

Happy baking!

David

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Sourdough Bagels

(adapted from Hamelman's bagel formula in Bread)

David M. Snyder

January 2, 2019

Almost two years ago, I converted Jeffrey Hamelman's formula for bagels to sourdough, although I did continue to spike the dough with instant yeast. Since then, I acquired my Mockmill 100 and have been baking almost everything with at least some freshly milled flour. Today, I baked a batch of bagels using 24% home-milled whole white wheat. The rest of the flour was Breadtopia's "High-protein Bread Flour." These are by quite a bit the best bagels I have ever made. They may be the best I have ever eaten.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein bread flour

705

76

Whole white wheat flour

223

24

Water

538

58

Barley Malt Syrup

5

0.5

Salt

18

2

Instant yeast

11

1.2

Total

1500

161.7

 

Makes 13 113 g (4 oz) bagels.

Note: For this bake, the High-protein bread flour was from Breadtopia. The whole white wheat flour was freshly milled using a Mockmill 100.

 

Liquid Levain

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (gm)

Bakers' %

Hi-protein bread flour

200

100

Water (85ºF)

200

100

Active liquid levain

80

40

Total

480

240

  1. Dissolve the levain in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Place in a clean container and ferment until ripe. 8-12 hours, depending on vigor of your starter and the ambient temperature – 76ºF is ideal. (For a liquid levain, this means the surface is bubbly and wrinkled. It should smell fruity, not like raw flour and not sour.)

  4. If not ready to mix the final dough, the ripe levain can be refrigerated for up to 3 days.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (gm)

High-protein bread flour

520

Whole white-wheat flour

223

Water (85ºF)

353

Barley malt syrup

5

Salt

18

Instant yeast

11

Liquid levain

370

Total

1500

 

Procedures

  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer, place the water, ripe liquid levain and malt syrup. Mix at low speed until these ingredients are well-blended.

  2. In a separate clean bowl, combine the flours, salt and instant yeast. Add this mix to the liquid ingredients a third at a time, mixing each addition at low speed until well-blended before adding the next.

  3. Mix at medium speed until an early gluten window forms (6-8 minutes).

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Form into a ball and place in a lightly oiled clean bowl. Cover tightly and ferment at 76ºF for one hour. The dough should be almost doubled in volume.

  5. Transfer the dough back to the board and divide into 113 g (4 oz) pieces.

  6. Pre-shape into rounds and allow to rest, covered with a towel, for 20 minutes or so.

  7. Form bagels from each piece. Degas gently. Form a tube, as if shaping a baguette. Roll each tube into a cylinder (not tapered) about 12 inches long. Wrap this around your open hand, with the ends overlapping under your palm by 2-3 inches. Roll your open hand back and forth on the board to seal the bagel. If it sticks, flour the board lightly. If it slides, wipe the board with a very slightly damp towel.

  8. Place the bagels with at least an inch between them on parchment-lined baking sheets sprinkled with semolina or coarse cornmeal. Cover with plasti-crap or place in a food-safe plastic bag and refrigerate for at least 6 hours or overnight. (I find quarter sheet pans most convenient. Each holds 6 bagels.)

  9. Pre-heat the oven to 500ºF (with an optional baking stone in place).

  10. In a large sauce pan (4 quart or larger), bring water to boil with 2 tablespoons of barley malt syrup.

  11. Take as many bagels as you can bake at one time out of the fridge.

  12. Boil the bagels right out of the fridge, 3 or 4 at a time, 15-20 seconds on each side. They should float.

  13. Remove the bagels to a cooling rack placed over a sheet pan. If topping, press the top or both top and bottom, if desired, into a pie tin containing the topping of choice. (If the bagels' surface is too dry for the toppings to stick, place a damp paper towel on a baking pan or another pie tin. Put the bagel on this for a moment before pressing into the topping mixture.)

  14. Then place the bagels on a clean, parchment-lined baking sheets sprinkled with semolina or coarse-ground cornmeal with at least one inch between them.

  15. Repeat steps 10. and 11. until all the bagels have been boiled and topped. (Note: If you cannot bake all the bagels at once, leave the ones you cannot accommodate in your first bake in the fridge until the first batch has been baked, then repeat steps 9.-11. with the remaining bagels.)

  16. Bake for 15-18 minutes, until the desired degree of brownness has been achieved.

  17. Cool on a rack for at least 30 minutes. Those that are not to be eaten right away can be frozen for later consumption.

These were baked this morning, so freshly baked for breakfast. I had one half with a lox shmear made yesterday ... 

I don't know how my local Whole Foods Market knew I would be baking bagels today, but yesterday, for the first time I can remember, they had genuine Great Lakes Smoked Whitefish! So, that's what I had with the other half bagel for breakfast. 

Very yummy stuff!

For your interest, this was not actually my first bake of 2019. Yesterday, I baked some more multi-grain sourdough, which continues to be our favorite "daily bread." You can see it here: https://www.instagram.com/p/BsJ7lDLjnSc/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet

Happy New Year to all my Fresh Loaf friends, and Happy Baking in 2019!

David

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dmsnyder

For the past few months, I have been baking breads with 40% home-milled mixed whole grain flours. I have been playing with various combinations of whole wheat, rye, kamut and spelt. The hydrations have been between 78 and 83%. I have found the flavors wonderful, but the crumb a bit dry, especially after freezing.

Last week, I returned to a bread with 30% whole grain flours and 81% hydration. The crumb was more open, and the crumb was cooler and less "dry" feeling. The flavor was subtly sweeter. I think my 40% whole grain breads need higher hydration, even than 83%. Stay tuned!

I have also been thinking for some time about trying some new (to me) rye breads. This week, I made Hamelman's "Sourdough Rye with Walnuts." This is a 50% whole grain rye bread. It is leavened by a firm rye sour and a bit of instant yeast, but it also contains a significant amount of un-pre-fermented rye - 40% of the total rye flour. The amount of walnuts is high - 25% baker's percentage. It is very tasty, especially good with cheese. 

 I hope you all are having wonderful and delicious holidays!

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

There really was enough bread in the freezer for most of a week, but I had an irresistible urge to bake bread, and I had promised to make a 75% whole wheat sourdough with home-milled flour, and last week's SJSD baguettes were so good and so gone ... ?

75% Whole Wheat Levain from FWSY, made with MockMilled whole wheat (and some rye)

The 75% Whole Wheat Levain's crumb

San Joaquin Sourdough Baguettes

And, last but not least, a Walnut-Fig Levain. It's good. It's the favorite of many of those with whom I share my breads.

Walnut-Fig Levain crumb

Walnut-Fig  levain with Point Reyes Blue Cheese. Delicious!

I feel better now. ?

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

I haven't baked baguettes in ages. I'm not sure why. I baked a few today, including an epi de blé. It was very yummy with a bowl of bean and farro soup for lunch today.

The obligatory crumb photo. This is one piece of the epi.

Bean-Farro soup. I made this up for my vegetarian granddaughters. It was so good, I wrote down the recipe and have made it many times since.

I'm baking more sourdough multi-grain loaves tomorrow. 

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

Pain au Levain with Whole Wheat Flour

from 

Hamelman’s “Bread”

 David Snyder

October, 2018

 

Since I got my Mock Mill 100, I have enjoyed baking breads with freshly milled flours - wheat, rye, spelt and kamut. Most of the breads have been based on formulas found in Ken Forkish’s “Flour Water Salt Yeast,” liberally adapted to my environment and taste. I have felt these breads have benefitted from the freshly milled flours. They certainly have been delicious. 

 Now, I have decided to to re-visit some of the breads that were my favorites before my Forkish foray, notably Hamelman’s pain au levain breads. I started out with his basic pain au levain, which is a white, sweet sourdough. It turned out well, but also reminded me that I’ve rather lost my taste for white bread, even good sourdough white bread.

 

Next, I made Hamelman’s Pain au Levain with Whole Wheat Flour. This is a 20% whole wheat loaf that has a firm starter and is cold retarded overnight. While not as pretty, perhaps, this one has a wonderful flavor - sweet, nutty and mildly sour. The crust is crunchy and the crumb is fairly open, moist and tender - for me, an almost ideal every day, all-purpose bread. For some mysterious reason, I felt that the freshly milled flour improved the flavor of this bread even more than those with a higher percentage of whole grain flours. It is really, really good!

  

 

Next, I plan on making Hamelman’s whole heat sourdough, which is 50% whole wheat. I will share the results here when I bake it.

Meanwhile, happy baking  to all!

 David

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