The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts


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zpak's picture

I have a wolfgang mill and would like to know if I would be losing

much nutritional value by milling 5 pounds of wheat at a time and keeping it 

in an air tight refrigerated container.  Is there anything I should be aware of

before I do it ?...   It would be used up in about two weeks and much more 

convenient for me. 


JoeVa's picture

Two months ago I bought a new oven so I had to learn how it works, I mean what is the best setup for sourdough heart baking. This led me to change my setup: no more covered baking!

Have you ever seen the incredible oven spring, great crust color, beautiful ears you have with a professional steam injected deck oven? Just take a look at these photos from Wally's excellent post "My Excellent Adventures at King Arthur Flour".


                                                      [James scoring Pain au Levain]


                                  [Jeffrey at the oven]


Don't you think this is incredible? How can this "flat dough" spring up so well? It must me the oven+steam system!

Here is one small (470g) test loaf, nothing special, just a white liquid sourdough and stone grounded Italian Tipo1 flour - very close to T80 French flour - a medium/soft+ dough at 66% hydration. I didn't take too much care of the dough because I was focused on my setup, but ...




So, the new setup is simple: free steam in the oven generated with a pre-heated bread loaf pan filled with stones and a wet towel. Preheat the oven at 250°C for about 45 minutes with the stone and the pan inserted (the pan is on the same level with the stone) and put the wet towel in the pan just before inserting the bread in the oven. My oven is very well insulated and it traps all the steam, moreover the top heating element work well and doesn't get fire-hot. When I baked this dough with the lid it was very flat with no ears ...

I think I have finally removed THE variable that gave me somewhat inconsistent baking result.

dmsnyder's picture


I've been baking the San Francisco Sourdough from Michel Suas' Advanced Bread and Pastry frequently over the past few months. It's very good. This weekend, I decided to try a couple of his other sourdough breads.

Right after the formula for “San Francisco Sourdough,” Suas gives two other formulas for Sourdough Bread, differing in the levain used. One uses a 100% hydration levain and the other a 50% stiff levain. Both differ from the San Francisco Sourdough in using a smaller starter inoculation for a levain that ferments for 24 hours. This week, I chose to make the one with the stiff levain, which Suas calls “Sourdough Bread One Feeding.”


Levain Formula

Wt (oz)

Baker's %

Bread flour

3 1/4


Medium rye flour




1 ¾


Starter (stiff)







Final dough

Wt (oz)

Baker's %

Bread flour

14 7/8



10 7/8


Yeast (instant)

1/8 tsp









2 lb


Note: The over-all hydration of this dough is 64%.



  1. Mix levain thoroughly.

  2. Ferment for 24 hours at room temperature.

  3. Mix the dough ingredients to medium gluten development. DDT 75-78ºF.

  4. Transfer to an oiled bowl. Cover tightly and ferment for 2 hours.

  5. Divide into two equal pieces and pre-shape into balls.

  6. Rest for 20-30 minutes, covered.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards.

  8. Proof in bannetons or en couche for 90-120 minutes at 80ºF.

  9. Pre-heat oven to 500ºF for 45-60 minutes, with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  10. Pre-steam oven. Transfer loaves to the peel. Score with “chevron” or “sausage” pattern, and transfer to the baking stone.

  11. Steam oven and turn temperature down to 440ºF.

  12. Bake for 30-35 minutes or until done.

  13. Remove loaves to a cooling rack and cool completely before slicing.

Note: My oven has a convection mode and a conventional baking mode. My actual baking procedure is to pre-heat the oven on Convection-Bake to 500ºF. After the bread is loaded and the oven steamed, I turn the oven to the recommended temperature using conventional (non-convection) baking. When the bread has started to color and has had full benefit of the steam, I switch to Convection-Bake again and lower the temperature by 20-25ºF. (This assumes I'm not baking with “falling temperatures,” as with some rye breads.)

The loaves were proofed at 80ºF for 2 ½ hours and expanded by 50-75%. I was concerned about the long proofing. One of the boules did deflate slightly with scoring, but I got very nice oven spring and bloom.  

The crust was crunchy and the crumb was soft - not very chewy. (I made this bread with KAF AP flour.) The flavor was sweet and wheaty with the barest hint of sour, and that was of the lactic acid type ... I think. Frankly, I missed the tang and the flavor tones of whole grains, which my preferred breads all have. On the other hand, this may approach the French ideal of a pain au levain, which is not sour in flavor. 

For those who prefer a not-sour-sourdough, I would recommend this bread without hesitation.


Submitted to YeastSpotting


dmsnyder's picture


I have some experience baking Jewish Sour Ryes and German-type rye breads. Suas' formula for “Sourdough Rye Bread” (Advanced Bread and Pastry, pp. 212-213) seems to me to be for a French-style “Pain de Seigle,” although Suas does not label it as such. It uses a stiff levain identical to the one Suas uses for his “San Francisco Sourdough,” but then the final dough is 60% rye flour. Overall, the rye content is 52% of the total flour. The overall dough hydration is 70%.



Levain Formula

Wt (oz)

Baker's %

Bread flour

2 1/2


Medium rye flour




1 1/4


Starter (stiff)

2 1/8






Final dough

Wt (oz)

Baker's %

Bread flour



Medium rye flour

8 7/8



10 7/8


Yeast (instant)

1/8 tsp









2 lb




  1. Mix levain thoroughly.

  2. Ferment for 12 hours at room temperature.

  3. Mix the dough ingredients to achieve some gluten development. DDT 75-78ºF. (I mixed for 7 minutes at Speed 2 in a KitchenAid stand mixer.)

  4. Transfer to an oiled bowl. Cover tightly and ferment for 2 hours.

  5. Divide into two equal pieces and pre-shape into balls.

  6. Rest for 20-30 minutes, covered.

  7. Shape as bâtards.

  8. Proof in bannetons or en couche for 90-120 minutes at 80ºF.

  9. Pre-heat oven to 500ºF for 45-60 minutes, with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  10. Pre-steam oven. Transfer loaves to the peel. Score as desired, and transfer to the baking stone.

  11. Steam oven and turn temperature down to 450ºF.

  12. Bake for 30-35 minutes or until done.

  13. Remove loaves to a cooling rack and cool completely before slicing.

This dough does develop some gluten from the 12.7% protein bread flour used, but it otherwise handles like a high-rye bread. The dough is clay-like and sticky, although less so than if it had had higher hydration. It was easy to shape with a light dusting of flour on the board.

The loaves expanded by no more than 50% after over 2 hours proofing at 80ºF on a couche, and they had modest oven spring. The cuts opened up nicely, considering.


The crust was hard and crunchy. The crumb was soft and moist. This is a pretty thin loaf - marginally bigger than a baguette. The ratio of crust to crumb is relatively high with a marked contrast in texture, which makes it quite interesting in the mouth.

The flavor is mildly sour with a sweetish, earthy rye flavor. Very nice. The French prefer this type of bread with smoked meats, soft cheeses and fish. We are having salmon for dinner tomorrow, and I have a nice Laura Chanel Chevre in the fridge. This rye should be delicious with both.


Submitted to YeastSpotting


hmcinorganic's picture

this is the Italian bread from Bread Bakers Apprentice, made with my Uncle's home grown olive oil.  These loaves were too long for my peel and I had a devil of a time getting them in the oven.  I had to cook them diagonally one at a time.  The 2nd one was dusted with flour before scoring because the first one almost completely deflated when scoring.  This dough was very hard to move around;  it may have over proofed but I had to run some errands.  I try to schedule bread in between all my other activities but sometimes it just doesn't work.  

They cooked up well, and I forgot to turn the oven down on the 2nd loaf from 500 to 450 (as usual) so it cooked in only 20 minutes.  The first took 25 or 30.  Not much oven spring (because of overproofing?)

my shaping is getting better, but I still can't reproduce my breads at all.  They all taste fine, but they are different every time (and no, not only when I make different kinds :) )


trailrunner's picture

We have had this ravioli plate for decades. My mother-in-law had it and when she and my father-in-law passed we inherited it. We have never used it. I often thought about tossing it but never did. The other day David mentioned ravioli on my pasta post. Well that started the wheels pun intended :) My DH made his usual pasta dough and then I looked up a few YouTube videos on ravioli and we were off. Three dozen later I can honestly say this is VERY easy. I took photos to show step by step. The filling is 4oz of baby bella mushrooms sauteed with 1/2c chopped onion and 2 minced garlic cloves till dry. salt and pepper to taste. Cool and add 1 c ricotta and 1/2c grated parmesan and some minced fresh basil. This will fill 3 dozen ravioli. 

filling: Photobucket ravioli plate, dust lightly with flour: Photobucket shape indents with plastic plate: Photobucket fill with 1 tsp filling...don't overfill and brush lightly w/water between and around eachPhotobucket top sheet of pasta: Photobucket roll over HARD with the rolling pin: Photobucket pull off extra and save to reroll: Photobucket turn over plate and drop onto semolina dusted pan: Photobucket 3 dozen : Photobucket Things to do differently. It says everywhere to use the finest setting, which is 6 on our machine. In the future we will use 5 for the first layer that the filling goes into and 6 for the cover. The reason is that I know a couple of these are going to burst. Leading to the next thing I will NOT overfill next time. Other than that it all went beautifully. It helps to have 4 David pointed out he and his DW ( dear wife) do this together. So harness a helper and get started. c

ehanner's picture

I was in Walmart last week and noticed a new green bag on the shelf next to the bright yellow Bread Flour from Gold Medal. It could be that this isn't a new offering from GM but it's the first time I have seen the Green package. I thought I would try a bag and see how it like it compared to other AP flours I use. First, the price made me take a second look. It was priced at $4.74 for a 5 pound bag. The Bread flour next to it is $2.65.

I have been wanting to make a batch of croissants so I thought his would be a good recipe to try my new organic AP on. A better test for me will be a French bread since I'm struggling with my laminated dough skills. Next time. Some people use a stronger flour for croissants than AP. I like the tender crumb I get from the AP. I used SteveB's recipe and procedure which I have enjoyed for some time. My croissants don't look any where as good as Steves or Larry's or Andy's and probably everyone else but they are delicious! Every time I make these  I swear I'm going to buy a sheeter even if I have to put it in the garage.

Proofing after 1st egg wash, under the cover. These half sheet covers are just terrific for these.

After 1st egg wash

A little crowded for good browning:>(

A small sample with my name on it :>)

Reasonable crumb and very nice flavor!

txfarmer's picture

Ever since Don introduced the method to combine cold retardation and gosselin baguettes, I have been eager to give it a try. David's successful try adds fuel to the fire. First I made the original Gosselin baguettes just to compare, it was delicious. Howver my first attempt with the cold retardation version ended up with an overflowing bucket in the fridge - yup, I forgot to reduce the yeast and used a container that's too small. I probably couldn've salvaged what's left in the container, but I didn't, I was too busy wiping my fridge.


This time I reduced yeast to 3/4tsp (Don added to his original post that he used 1/2tsp of yeast, but I didn't see that until ... now. Oops. Sort of decided on the # of 3/4tsp randomly, luckily it's close enough to Don's 1/2tsp.), used a combo of KA bread flour (25%) and GM AP flour (75%), kept the hydration at 75% exactly. The rest is exactly like Don's formula and everything worked out well.One thing I noticed immediately is that even though I baked them as how I bake all my baguettes, these come out MUCH darker. Is it because the long autolyse and long cold retardation brought out more sugar in the flour? They sang loudly coming out of the oven.

I used more AP flour in this batch than the original Gosselin baguettes, which means the dough's even more soft. Channeled David and the chickens, scored with an angle, got ears, however tiny, but there they are!

open crumb, comparable to original Gosselin

Here's what's unexpected about this bread:I would've thought after such a long time in the fridge (36 hours), the dough would lose some of the gluten due to too much proteolysis, especially for a dough that's mainly AP flour. However, it's the opposite. It felt MORE elastic than the original Gosselin dough during preshaping and shaping, in fact, they are so elastic that I had to fight a bit to get them to the proper length. Anyone has a good explaination? Does proteolysis activity slow down a lot at low temperature? Anyway, these baguettes are very flavorful, less sweet than original Gosselin, but more "complex".

Thank you Don for sharing with us such an innovative recipe, it was fun to make and delicious to eat.

yozzause's picture

I have just returned from a gold prospecting trip here in Western Australia, the trip was organized by my good mate Bob,and it was to be a 2 week away jaunt.

There were two vehicles and a trailer and 4 guys along with my SOUR DOUGH culture setting off from Perth on a saturday morning, we had some rain overnight but the spirits weren't dampend as we picked up the two hire detectors (minelab 4500's).

The drive took us up the Great Northern Highway which is the main route used by trucks going to the North West servicing the Mining Industry, Iron Ore being the biggest along with gold, gas and a multitude of other minerals our state is blessed with.

Everything here is big and it is not long before you are sharing the road with road trains , huge trucks pulling 3 trailers, we had our 2 way radio on and could here the colourfull truckie lingo from time to time, and very handy to let these guys know that you are ready for them to come past if they are in a hurry or if you catch them on a hill and are going past, most of thes guys are real pros.

There is also a large number of grey nomads heading north for the winter warmth and they are usually the truckies nightmare as their speed is quite a lot lower, they are often elderly and can be oblivious to faster trucks trying to earn their living. The air displacement of a truck passing can also upset caravans quite easily. How ever if trucks loose there momentum and have to slow to 80 klm it takes them a long time to build it up again.

We did come up behind an escorted load of two dump truck bodies on low loader that according to the escort vehicles were 8 and a half metres wide so therefore took up the whole of the paved roadway.

The lead vehicle travels a good way ahead with flashing lights advising over the two way the size of the following load giving traffic in the opposite direstion time to pull of to the gravel shoulder of the road this is followed by a police escort vehicle that ensures the traffic is off to the side then come the outsize load followed by tail end charlie that advises of following traffic. We were treated to the site of a triple road train passing the two dump truck bodies at about 80 klms an hour.

It started with calls between tail end charlie and the truck and then the lead escort identifying a floodway further up the road as a passing point , The Overtaker then drops back a bit and winds up ready for the manouver, it seems to take for ever. but safely past we are the called to come past as the dumpers have lost a bit of omph, but the road way is not as wide as in the floodway and we have 2 wheels in the dirt and most of the dump tray over us with various attaching items sticking out at you with dayglow flags flapping almost in your face we were baulked half way past as the roadmarkers were in danger of being flattened.The truck driver barks encourgement to go for it. Bob thought we would have a yellow mark on the side of the Prado we were that close, although he did think that it could match the brown mark on his side. Anyway our second vehicle got past unscathed and we made our first nights stop at Cue. Two of Bobs friends were joining us here and had been kind enough toput us up for the night in two of their caravans.

I was able to feed my sour dough here as i intended baking bread in the campfire oven when we were set up in camp.                          (to be continued)

ananda's picture

Hi Again!

Very quickly following on from my last post "Whitsuntide Breads and Other Antics", this is a quick post listing the books that I recommend for my bakery students to source to aid their programme of study.

Hansjoakim asked me about this, after I posted information about a Student Bread Competition.   There are just short of 50 books on the list.   The one I most want is one Hans referenced sometime ago by Claus Schunemann.   I've tried to get it through Amazon UK, and finally received an e-mail today.   Original price for the book is just over £55.   I would pay that!   However, a secondhand version is about £90 + P&P, and a new version is over £125 + P&P!!!!

The College Library service is top class.   Next year's books are ordered already.   These will now come mainly as e-books.   Most of the books I'm ordering now are scientific and technical and go over the magic £100 mark.   That's the point where alarm bells start sounding in our "cash-strapped" world of UK 2010!   Books shown below with double * are in our library.   Others are noted as on order in some shape or form.

Of course, blogging on TFL partly shows my keen enthusiasm for all matters electronic too.   And this is very highly valued by the College....To the extent that, as Lecturers, our use of ILT is monitored and built in to performance management.   Every course  which runs in College has a "Blackboard" site.   This is a means of inter-active learning for students, and the sites I have created for the bakery course I run are my pride and joy.   I won 2nd prize last year as ILT Practitioner of the Year.   The site content allows students to access any learner materials night and day, either in College, or anywhere else, given access to a pc and the internet.   Materials include a host of photgraphs from all the practical classes, plus demonstration videos.   Some of these are available on my TFL blog, as you may have already seen.   All course details and documents are posted, and folders full of my recipes.   The front page is an "Announcements" area, enabling me to provide rapid and immediate news for students [eg the news of the Apprenticeship Baker post which came up the day before yesterday].   There is also a place for "External Links".   I have quite a range in here; top of the pile is immediate access to....THE FRESH LOAF, of course!

In the syllabus area, there are loads of documents for students to use to complete the course.   Also in here, is this list shown below.   Well, my studies at University in the early 1980s involved use of microfiche to access books in the library,; no computers whatsoever!   I didn't even know how to word process until early 2004!   Some folks think mobile phones are where it's at, and others go more for media such as television.   I've long been convinced that the most powerful player is the pc, and, particularly the internet.   Anybody disagree about that?

So if I've missed anything off please let me know.   As you can see, there is a big "hats off" to the great US Artisan Bakers; my personal big inspiration in the book world of the last 5-10 years.   A quick count up suggests I own about 20 of the books shown in my personal baking library.



Recommended Texts

I will add to this list from time to time:

**Amendola, J., Rees, N. (2003) Understanding Baking: The Art and the Science of Baking. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

Banfield, W.T. (1947) Manna: A Comprehensive Treatise on Bread Manufacture. London: Maclaren & Sons

**Barenbaum, R.L. (2003) The Bread Bible. New York & London: Norton

**Bertinet, R. (2007) Crust: Bread to Get Your Teeth Into. London: Kyle Cathie

**Bertinet, R. (2008; paperback, with dvd) Dough: Simple Contemporary Bread. London: Kyle Cathie

** [7 copies]Brown, J. et. al. [Eds] (1996) The Master Bakers' Book of Bread Making. Hertfordshire: NAMB

**Calvel, R., MacGuire, J., Wirtz, R. (2001) The Taste of Bread. Gaithersburg, Md.L: Aspen

Cauvain, S. P. [ed] (2003) Bread Making: Improving Quality Cambridge: Woodhead [on order as an e-book]

Cauvain, S. P., Young, L. S. (2006) The Chorleywood Bread Process. Cambridge: Woodhead

**Cauvain, S. P., Young, L. S. (2007) The Technology of Breadmaking. 2nd Edition. New York: Springer - Verlag

**Cauvain, S. P., Young, L. S. (2009) More Baking Problems Solved. Cambridge: Woodhead

Collister, L., Blake, A. (1993) The Bread Book London: Conran Octopus

** [multiple copies]Connelly, P., Pittam, M. (1997) Practical Bakery. London: Hodder & Stoughton

**David, E. (1979) English Bread and Yeast Cookery. London: Penguin

**DiMuzio, D. T. (2009) Bread Baking: An Artisan's Perspective. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Edwards, W. P. (2007) The Science of Bakery Products London: Royal Society of Chemistry

**Figoni, P. (2008) How Baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Friberg, B. (2002) The Professional Pastry Chef: Fundamentals of Baking and Pastry.  4th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Friberg, B. (2003) The Advanced Professional Pastry Chef: Advanced Baking and Pastry Techniques. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Gisslen, W. (2008) Professional Baking. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Glezer, M. (2000) Artisan Baking Across America. New York, Artisan

**Hamelman, J. (2004) Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc

**Hanneman, L.J. (1991) Bakery: Flour Confectionery. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Butterworth - Heinemann

**Hanneman, L.J. (1992) Bakery: Bread and Fermented Goods. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Butterworth - Heinemann

** [multiple copies]Hanneman, L.J. (1993) Patisserie 2nd Edition. Oxford: Butterworth - Heinemann

Hui, Y. H. et. al. [Eds] (2006) Bakery Products: Science and Technology New York/London: Wiley-Blackwell [on order as an e-book]

Kaplan, S. L. (2006) Good Bread Is Back: A Contemporary History Of French Bread, The Way It Is Made, And the People Who Make It. Durham and London: Duke

Kirkland, J. (1927) The Modern Baker, Confectioner and Caterer. London: Gresham

**Labensky, S., Martel, P., van Damme, E (2009) On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals.  New Jersey: Pearson, Prentice Hall

**Leader, D., Blahnik, J. (1993) Bread Alone: Bold Fresh Loaves From Your Own Hands. New York: Morrow

**Leader, D., Chattman, L. (2007) Local Breads: Sour Doughs and Whole Grain Recipes From Europe's Best Artisan Bakers. New York: Norton

**Lepard, D. (2004) The Handmade Loaf. London: Mitchell Beazley

**Lepard, D., Whittington, R. (2010) Baking with Passion: Baker and Spice. London: Quadrille

**Ortiz, J. (1993) The Village Baker. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press

**Reinhart, P. (2001) The Bread Baker's Apprentice. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press

**Reinhart, P. (2006; paperback) Crust and Crumb: Master Formulas for Serious Bread Bakers. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press

**Reinhart, P. (2007) Whole Grain Breads. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press

**Reinhart, P. (2009) Artisan Breads Everyday: Fast and Easy Recipes for World-Class Breads. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press

**Rinsky, G., Rinsky, L. H. (2008) The Pastry Chef's Companion: a Comprehensive Resource  Guide for the Baking and Pastry Professional. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

**Roux, M., Roux, A. (1993) The Roux Brothers on Patisserie. London: Little, Brown

**Shulman, M-R. (1990) Bread Book. London: Macmillan

Stevens, D. (2009) Bread: River Cottage Handbook No. 3. London: Bloomsbury

**Suas, M. (2008) Advanced Bread and Pastry USA: Delmar Cengage Learning

**Treuille, E., Ferrigno, U., O'Leary, I. (1998) Bread. London: Dorling Kindersley

**Whitley, A. (2006) Breadmatters: the state of modern bread and a definitive guide to baking your own. London: Fourth Estate

**Wing, D., Scott, A. (1999) The Bread Builders: Hearth Loaves and Masonry Ovens. Vermont: Chelsea Green.




Baking: The Art and Science (Hardcover)   by Claus Schunemann (Author)


Other texts of interest to be found in the College Library:




Cordon Bleu

"Baking 1" and "Baking 2"   1971

London; Macdonald and Jane's

Daniel A. R.

"The Bakers' Dictionary" 2nd edition, 1971

"Bakery Materials and Methods" 4th edition 1963

"Bakery Questions Answered" 1972

"Up-to-date Confectionery" 1978


Essex; Elsevier Applied Science

Richemont Craft School

"Perfect Bakery and Confectionery" 1989

"Swiss Bakery" 1988

"Swiss Confiseur" 1987

"Swiss Confectionery" 1985


Lucerne; Richemont

Barrows, A. E.

"Bakery Specialities" 1984

Essex; Elsevier Applied Science

Shulman, M. R.

"The Bread Book" 1990

London; Macmillan

Schumacher, M.

"Complete Book of Baking" 1993

London; Tiger

Culinary Institute of America

"Baking and Pastry - Mastering the Art and Craft" 2004

New Jersey; John Wiley

Bachman, W.

"Swiss Bakery and Confectionery" 1949

London; Maclaren

Boyle, T. and Moriarty, T.

"Grand Finales - Art of Plated Desserts" 1997

"Modernist View [Grand Finales] 1997


New York, John Wiley

Fance, W. J. [ed]

"New International Confectioner" 5th Edition 1981

London; Virtue

Nicolello, I

"New Manual in Patisserie and Confectionery"

"Complete Confectionery Techniques" 1994

Complete Pastrywork Techniques" 1991

"Basic Pastrywork Techniques" 1991

** there are 10 copies of this manual in the library!!



London; Hodder and Stoughton

Barker, W.

"The Modern Patissier" 1983

London; Hutchinson

Healy, B. and Bugat, P.

"Mastering the Art of French Pastry" 1984

New York; Barron's

Karousos, G.

"The Patissier's Art 1994

New York; John Wiley

Juillet, C.

"Classic Patisserie" 1998

London; B. H

Bennion and Bamford

"Technology of Cakemaking" 1930, rep 1986

Worcester; Billings. There is a recently updated version of this available, but not in the library







Ashby, P


Boyle, P. T.

"Sugar Work"

Lees, R. and Jackson, E. B.

"Sugar Confectionery and Chocolate Manufacture"

McFadden, C and France, C

Chocolate - Cooking with the World's Best Ingredient

Sinkeldam, C.

"Art of Marzipan Modelling"

Storer, E.

"Complete Book of Marzipan"

Lodge, N

International School of Sugarcraft


Best wishes



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