The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

How do I substitute Home-milled flour for "all-purpose" flour?

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JennsBread's picture
JennsBread

How do I substitute Home-milled flour for "all-purpose" flour?

I have some recipies for bread that I use, and they are fine, but already are written with fresh milled flour in mind.

Looking at recipes for cookies, cakes, muffins, etc....

Does anyone know the way to do it with fresh milled flour instead of all purpose flour and have them turn out well, even "great"?

i HAVE searched with the search feature... and sooo many of the posts just look like greek to me ("chemical leavening" to get dome tope on muffins.... i have NO idea what "chemical leavening" is!!!)

Sorry to bother anyone...

:-)

proth5's picture
proth5

If you are making cookies, (most) muffins, and (most) cakes, you know what "chemical leavening" is - it is baking powder or baking soda.  These are ingredients that you will see mentioned in recipes for these items.  It is called "chemical" because it derives its power to raise the baked good based on a chemical reaction, rather than yeast, which is a biological process (that is - yeast is alive and grows).

The largest issue for home milled flour in baking these types of items is that most home milled flour is "whole wheat" - that is containing the whole wheat berry and not being sifted to remove the bran and germ.

I find cookies and muffins to be more forgiving of home milled flour than bread, but what you want to do at the beginning is find recipes that use either 100% whole wheat flour or nearly 100% whole wheat flour.

The King Arthur Flour website has a number of these recipes - just use their search feature.

Hope this was helpful and in English...

Ju-Ju-Beads's picture
Ju-Ju-Beads

JennsBread, whenever possible you should grind the flour just before using it.  The flour is stable for several hours  but then begins to change into "shelf-storage mode".  The process will take several weeks, at which point it stabilizes again.  The flour's baking properties will be effected during this period unless you freeze the flour.  All this per my mother, a dedicated home miller for many decades.  She still stone -grinds with her 40+ year old Magic Mill, now produced under the Golden Grain Grinder name.

Proth5, you raise an intresting point.  My mother once told me there was a way to produce more-nearly refined flour, but no longer remembers.  You mention home-milled flour "not being sifted to remove the bran and germ."  Is there really a way to do this?

Papist's picture
Papist

Should I always sift the fresh milled flour?  Does that making soaking unnecessary?  Does it make fresh milled flour a better substitute for AP flour?

proth5's picture
proth5

Yes, you can sift home milled flour to remove some of the bran and germ (but you do not have to, or may not want to as you may want the whole wheat).  I was trying to keep my response less technical and didn't want to go into a milling processes lecture.  White flour is really only produced on roller mills - which, in general, are not used by home millers.

But to make the equivalent of "all purpose flour"?  That's hard.  Use the search function to find my blogs.  On about pages 5 and 6 you will my milling blogs.  You might also search on "bwraith" (my long lost milling buddy) to find his blogs on the subject.

I don't soak my home milled flour when I make bread.  Some people do.  What works, works.  I wouldn't recommend soaking it for cookies and muffins.

Hope this helps.

JennsBread's picture
JennsBread

but what in the HECK does it mean to "soak" home milled flour?!?!

in my bread recipes, I grind what I will use for my batch(es) that day  (50 cups of wheat berries the other day - OY!) (28 loaves of bread - OY OY!)

and 6 cups of milled flour left (now in the freezer)

I have a blend tec mill. and use the mix & blend 2 for my bread making.

Chemical leavening - GOT it, THANK YOU! that now makes sense.
:-)
will check the king arthur site, after I sleep  - yes, the point IS to use the whole wheat, for me.... otherwise.. what IS the point?
LOL
thanks guys, for helping me in this fledgling journey!
:-)

 

proth5's picture
proth5

whole grain flour is simply the process of adding the water from the formula to the flour and allowing it to sit (in a cool place) for some hours prior to adding additional ingredients. I don't do this, so others who do might want to chime in. 

What is the point of milling less thn whole wheat flours?  To be involved in the process - to be able to creat different breads by creating different flours - to stretch one's creativity in a different area.

For some folks, there is nothing but whole grain for whatever reasons they choose  - for others, milling is a bit broader based...

Hope this helps.

JennsBread's picture
JennsBread

i did come across something that was along the lines of 3 cups ww fresh ground flour and 1/2 cup of corn starch, sifted thru once => all purpose flour

sift it again => bakers flour...

 

but dunno the validity of that...

Ju-Ju-Beads's picture
Ju-Ju-Beads

I may be wrong, Jennsbread, but I believe the soaking mentioned above refers to re-hydrating the grain prior to grinding. As I understand it, that swells the bran, making it easier to remove by sifting. Not true "soaking," but adding a slight amount of water and letting it fully permeate the grain- it should feel dry to the touch before grinding. Again, as I understand it, from reading some of Proth5's posts. I'm brand new to this myself, but oh,boy! what fun this promises to be. I have not tried re-hydrating wheat yet; I've worked 38 hours over the last 3 days and haven't really done anything else but sleep. But today I'll grind my first batch of flour for bread. Can't wait.

proth5's picture
proth5

soaking the flour (which does mean soaking the flour) as part of the mixing process for whole wheat breads with wetting the grain for "temoering" the wheat (to toughen the bran) prior to milling.

Tempering should be undertaken with caution - and probably with a grain moisture meter - to avoid damage to your mill.

Soaking the flour is something that a lot of folks do, again, as part of the mix process...

Hope this helps.

proth5's picture
proth5

soaking the flour (which does mean soaking the flour) as part of the mixing process for whole wheat breads with wetting the grain for "tempering" the wheat (to toughen the bran) prior to milling.

Tempering should be undertaken with caution - and probably with a grain moisture meter - to avoid damage to your mill.

Soaking the flour is something that a lot of folks do, again, as part of the mix process...

Hope this helps.

Ju-Ju-Beads's picture
Ju-Ju-Beads

So, basically, this is an extended autolysis?  You say you don't do it; neither does my mother.  Do you know the theory behind it?

Anyone?

Papist's picture
Papist

I milled wheat about two weeks ago and it's been in a ziplock bag in my bread box since.  Can I use it now? 

Ju-Ju-Beads's picture
Ju-Ju-Beads

Go for it!  I like to grind immediately before mixing the dough so I don't really know how long those enzymatic changes last.  I wouldn't let that stop me from trying it out.  Besides, even if the flour does continue to change, what's to say that a two week rest isn't just perfect for what you want do with it? 

Annette Rana Webb's picture
Annette Rana Webb

Found this in answer to someones Q about subing wh wt flour for white flour

I substitute my freshly ground whole wheat flour (made from hard white wheat) one for one in recipes that call for white flour. However, freshly ground whole wheat flour is often lighter in texture, making a one to one substitution possible.
If you are using store-bought whole wheat flour, I find that this seems to be a heavier flour. Therefore, I recommend using a lesser amount than the white flour that is called for in a recipe. You may find that this is even true with my recipes that call for whole wheat flour, since I am using freshly ground flour. I receive quite a few comments, particularly on my Honey Whole Wheat Bread from people using King Arthur’s whole wheat flour or another store bought flour that they didn’t need to add in all of the flour the recipe called for. I suggest just adding flour until the dough is the correct consistency…then stop.
If you want to soak the whole grain flour to break down the phytates, generally you can substitute a cultured dairy product (or water with lemon juice) for the liquid called for in a recipe…plus add the fat (butter or oil)…and stir these together with the flour for overnight soaking. If you have no idea what I’m talking about when I say “soak the grains“, read this post!
You can read more about grains and grain mills in this series of posts!!
To make things a little bit easier…I created a free printable “Healthy Recipe Substitutions” download. Click the following link, print it off and keep it in your kitchen as a handy reference!    http://heavenlyhomemakers.com/how-to-adapt-a-recipe-to-make-it-healthier

Annette Rana Webb's picture
Annette Rana Webb

RE: Dough conditioners/enhancers/rye sours/flavors clip this post email this post what is this?
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Conditioners/enhancers/rye sours/flavors. I stay away from the list of trendy things you'll find in King Arthur's Baker's Catalogue or Lora Brody items. Many of these products came to the fore when people started using the QUICK CYCLE in bread machines. You just can't get the same type of bread in one hour that an all day method takes. You miss the complex flavors that only time can achieve. Adding flavorings is neither right or wrong, just a choice. But if you use different methods, your bread will develop many of the "flavors" naturally.

Since I rarely make French- or Italian-style breads (flour, yeast, water, salt) most of my breads are "enhanced" and I commonly use these enhancers.

Ascorbic Acid- (also found in yeast) 
I use 1/8-t. ascorbic acid per loaf anytime I use 100% whole wheat flour or wheat germ. There's a substance in wheat germ called Glutathione and this substance breaks down the gluten. Ascorbic acid in your dough will help to counteract the negative effects of Glutathione and will help the gluten bonds from breaking down. Ascorbic acid helps sustain the leavening of loaves during baking and promotes yeast growth so the yeast will work longer and faster. Ascorbic acid promotes an acidic dough in which yeast grows best.

I don't use ascorbic acid in sourdough breads using whole wheat flour because it's already acidic enough.

Vital Wheat Gluten- 
I add vital wheat gluten when a recipe uses a large amount of low-gluten flour.

Dry Milk Powder, milk or other dairy product. I use homemade kefir in my breads. The fermented product contributes some acid that helps bread stay fresher longer and deters mold as well as a great amount of flavor.

Fats added to dough are enhancers. They add taste and contribute to the texture and moisture of the bread.

Eggs - also an enhancer. They add to the rise, color, texture and taste. The naturally-occuring lecithin in eggs also contributes.

Chia seed goop - This helps maintain moisture in the crumb rather than moisture wicking to the crust, increases fiber and other nutrients.

The chemical bleaches in bleached flour is also considered a dough improver. When flour was bromated, the bromites aided in giving the gluten more extensibility. I never use bleached flour and bromated flour is no longer available.

Non-Diastatic Malt - When I use it I make my own. It's supposed to give the bread better structure and make it softer and more tender. The live enzymes help yeast to grow. It contributes to the flavor as well. I don't know that it made all that much difference to use it or not.

Spices such as ginger, ground caraway, cardamom, cinnamom, mace, nutmeg, and thyme all improve yeast activity. Many bakers add a pinch of ginger to dough for this reason.

I never use dough relaxer. The gluten strands in dough will "relax" if you allow it to - it's called resting it 10-20 minutes before you form it. If you have a problem with pizza dough being difficult to form or roll out even after a rest, try using a small amount of a lower-gluten flour in the mix.

Rye Sour is another mixture of ingredients that quickly adds a taste and acidity that normally develops in dough if allowed enough time. One of the ingredients in it is rye flour - DUH! The taste most people associate with rye bread is actually nothing more than the caraway seeds. Try adding crushed caraway seeds to white bread and you'll assume it's rye bread. The deep dark coloring associated with dark rye is because of the additions of molasses, cocoa, or coffee to the recipe. Rye flour has very little flavor on its own until it's allowed some fermentation time. Rye flour ferments very quickly, which is why it's a good flour to use when you begin a starter. I often use freshly-milled rye flour in quick breads and cookies.

Those are some that come to mind...

-Grainlady

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