The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

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Sourdough Bread: April 30, 2019

David Snyder

This is basically the same bread I baked on March 22, 2019. The only change was to substitute spelt for the rye and some of the all purpose flour in the final dough.

I have been trying different grain blends and anticipate continuing this line of experiments for a while. All the breads have been among my favorites. The long cold retardation really enhances the acid content without resulting in too much gluten breakdown, at least with these flours and this hydration level.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

147

13

AP flour

653

56

Whole Rye flour

136

11

Whole Spelt flour

234

20

Water

769

65

Salt

23

2

Total

1962

167

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Rye flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

653

Whole Rye flour

116

Whole Spelt flour

234

Water

686

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

1962

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at room temperature until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

Today's loaves were cold retarded for 36 hours then proofed at 80ºF for about 60 minutes before being baked.

This bake was quite similar to others in this series. The crust was crunchy. The crumb was mildly chewy. The flavor was complex and very nice with a definite acetic acid tang that did not over-power the flavor of the grains.

Happy baking!

David

 

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Sourdough Bread: April 25, 2019

David Snyder

This is basically the same bread I baked on March 22, 2019. The changes are to use whole wheat rather than rye in the starter and to substitute spelt for the rye and some of the all purpose flour in the final dough.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

147

13

AP flour

653

56

Whole Wheat flour

15

1

Whole Rye flour

121

10

Whole Spelt flour

234

20

Water

769

65

Salt

23

2

Total

1962

147

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Wheat flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

653

Whole Rye flour

116

Whole Spelt flour

234

Water

686

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

1962

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at room temperature until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

Today's loaf was cold retarded for 40 hours then proofed at 80ºF for about 80 minutes before being baked. The crust is crunchy. The flavor is lovely – complex with a pronounced acetic acid tang. This is the most sour bread of my current series of experiments. It is rather similar to the March 22 bake. I cannot discern to absence of the rye. Even right after cooling when first tasted, the flavor was well-balanced.

Happy baking!

David

 

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Mixed Grain Sourdough

David Snyder

April, 2019

 

For this week's bakes, I am returning to my variations on Ken Forkish's “Field Blend #2.” The flour mix used is the same as that of several previous bakes, except that the Whole Wheat flour used is “Warthog” hard red Winter wheat. One of the bakers I follow on Instagram swears by this variety, so I though I would try it. What I found right away was that it seems a lot less thirsty than any of the other hard red Winter wheats I have used to date. So I did reduce the hydration slightly and still ended up with a much slacker dough than expected.

I made two loaves with this dough. One was retarded for about 20 hours. The other loaf was retarded for about 44 hours.

Total dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

All purpose (AP) flour

700

70

Whole Wheat (WW) flour

125

12.5

Whole Rye flour

75

7.5

Whole Spelt flour

100

10

Water

760

76

Salt

21

2.1

Total

1781

180.1

 

Levain

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

All purpose (AP) flour

144

75

Whole Wheat (WW) flour

36

25

Water (85-90ºF)

144

75

Active Starter (100% hydration)

36

25

Total

360

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water, add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  2. Place in a clean bowl and cover tightly.

  3. Ferment at 80ºF until doubled in volume.

  4. The levain can be used immediately or refrigerated for up to 3 days. If refrigerated, I take it out 2 hours before I am going to incorporate it into the final dough. In general, this means I take it out when I am ready to mix the autolyse.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

All purpose (AP) flour

540

Whole Wheat (WW) flour

85

Whole Rye flour

75

Whole Spelt flour

100

Water (85-90ºF)

600

Levain

360

Salt

21

Total

1781

Method

  1. In a large bowl, mix the water and the flours to a shaggy mass. Be sure to leave no dry flour in the bowl.

  2. Cover and let sit at room temperature for 1-2 hours (autolyse).

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the levain in 4-6 portions. Mix in with a spatula, spoon or your wet hands.

  4. Continue distributing the salt and levain evenly by squeezing the dough repeatedly between your thumb and fingers, alternating with stretching and folding the dough. (Hint: I find that doing this wearing a food service glove which I dip frequently in a bowl of water works very well. The dough doesn't stick to the glove as much as it does to my hand.)

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl and cover it.

  6. Ferment at 80ºF for 3-4 hours. Stretch and fold in the bowl at 30 and 60 minutes. Stretch and fold on a lightly floured board 50 and 100 minutes later. Note: I bulk ferment this dough in a Brød and Taylor Proofing Box. If you are fermenting at a cooler temperature, it will just take longer. Do additional stretch and folds hourly to redistribute metabolites and equalize dough temperature. Leave the dough alone for the last hour. The dough should increase in volume to about double and be pillowy.

  7. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Pre-shape as rounds and cover with a dish towel. Let it rest for 10-30 minutes.

  8. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Place in food-safe plastic bags (or cover with a damp tea towel).

  9. Allow to proof at room temperature for 30-60 minutes, then refrigerate for 8-16 hours.

  10. Remove from refrigerator and let sit at room temperature for 1-2 hours, depending on degree of proofing.

  11. If baking on a stone, pre-heat the oven for an hour with the baking stone and your steaming apparatus in place. If baking in Dutch ovens (DO's), pre-heat the oven with the DO tops for at least 20 minutes. Note: If baking on a stone, I pre-heat the oven to 500ºF. If baking in DO's, I pre-heat to 475ºF.)

  12. If baking on a stone turn down the oven temperature to 460ºF, transfer loaves to a peel, steam the oven, score the loaves as desired and load them onto the stone. Remove the steaming apparatus after 15 minutes. Continue baking for another 30-40 minutes. If you have a convection oven, set it to 435ºF Convection Bake for the last part of the bake. The loaves are done when they are darkly colored, sound hollow when the bottoms are thumped and have an internal temperature of 205ºF.

  13. If baking in DO's, transfer the loaves into the DO bottoms. Score the loaves as desired. Using good hot pads or oven gloves, remove the DO tops from the oven and cover the bottoms. Transfer the DO's to the oven. After 30 minutes, remove the DO covers. Continue to bake the loaves for another 20 minutes.

  14. Remove the loaves from the oven and place them on a cooling rack. Cool completely before slicing.

Note: These times and temperatures assume 900-1200 g loaves. If using this dough for smaller loaves, use higher temperatures and shorter bake times. If baking larger loaves, use lower temperatures and longer bake times.

The loaf that had been retarded for 20 hours was tasted after completely cooling. The crust was crunchy. The crumb was tender. The flavor was complex, sweet and moderately sour. A very delicious bread.

 

The loaf that was retarded for an additional day seemed a bit over-proofed. It had a weaker gluten sheath and spread more when transferred to the peel. It had less oven spring and less bloom. The crust did brown well though. The texture of the crust and crumb were the same as the first loaf. The flavor was somewhat more sour but also less complex to my taste when first tasted. The next morning, as usual, the flavors had melded and improved.

 

Now, I would not conclude that a 40+ hour cold retardation is a bad idea in general. For this particular bread, it did not provide an improved result. Not bad bread, but the first loaf was better, at least to my palate.

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

Sourdough Bread: April 8, 2019

David Snyder

This is another hybrid bread. It differs from my last bake in the following ways:

  1. I substituted a low-protein white whole wheat for the Turkey Red wheat used previously.

  2. I decreased the total dough hydration to 72% because of the lower protein content of the flour mix. At the lower hydration level, the dough was still significantly slacker than the previous bake. It was also remarkably more extensible.

Total Dough

Tot. Flour=1163g

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

147

13

AP flour

668

57

Whole Wheat flour

116

10

Whole Rye flour

116

10

Whole Kamut flour

116

10

Water

833

75

Salt

23

2

Total

2019

177

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Rye flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

Note: I have maintained my 50% hydration starter with feedings as previously described – a bit of rye and the remainder high-protein flour – with feedings about 3 times per week.

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

668

WW flour

116

Whole Rye flour

96

Whole Kamut flour

116

Water

750

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

2019

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough as desired and pre-shape as balls. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at room temperature until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

I divided the dough into two 250g pieces that were shaped as baguettes and baked after proofing for an hour and two 715g pieces which were shaped as bâtards, proofed at room temperature, retarded for 40 hours, proofed at 80ºF for another hour and 45 minutes then baked.

The baguettes were good but lacked in flavor compared to the retarded loaves.

The bâtard had a more complex flavor and was a little tangier. It was missing the unique and prominent flavor I have come to associate with Turkey Red wheat. It is good, but I have come to enjoy the flavor contribute of whole grain red wheat and miss it in this bread. We'll see how it tastes for breakfast tomorrow.

I do want to experiment more with the low-protein white wheat, but perhaps not in a pain de campagne type bread. How about scones?

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

Sourdough Bread: March 30, 2019

David Snyder

This is another hybrid bread. It differs from my last bake in the following ways:

  1. I have increased the whole grain flour to a total of 30% of the total flour by adding 10% Kamut.

  2. I have increased the final dough hydration to 75%.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

147

13

AP flour

668

57

Whole Wheat flour

116

10

Whole Rye flour

116

10

Whole Kamut flour

116

10

Water

872

75

Salt

23

2

Total

2058

177

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Rye flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

Note: I have maintained my 50% hydration starter with feedings as previously described – a bit of rye and the remainder high-protein flour – with feedings about 3 times per week.

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

668

WW flour

116

Whole Rye flour

96

Whole Kamut flour

116

Water

789

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

2058

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at 80ºF until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

Tasting notes: It was severely yummy.

I divided the dough from this mix into 3 loaves. I baked two after 24 hours cold retardation. One went to a neighbor. The third loaf was baked after 40 hours cold retardation. It has a more open crumb than the one pictured above, and the flavor is significantly more sour. 

Happy baking!

David

 

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dmsnyder

Sourdough Bread: March 22, 2019

David Snyder

This bake is a kind of hybrid (high bread?). It utilizes elements of the formula and method shared by Mike Giraudo on Facebook, Peter Reinhart's James Beard Award-winning “San Francisco Sourdough,” as presented in his book, “Crust and Crumb” and various techniques I have adopted over the years, such as autolyse.

The fermentations in a warm environment should enhance yeast and lactobacillus growth and production of lactic acid. The cold retardations and low hydration of the starter and the final dough should enhance acetic acid production. I am hoping the final result will be a moderately sour bread with a pleasing balance of flavors.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

152

13

AP flour

771

66

Whole Wheat flour

116

10

Whole Rye flour

131

11

Water

769

65

Salt

23

2

Total

1962

167

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Rye flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

Note: Prior to mixing this starter, I fed a firm starter with high-protein flour at 50% hydration every other day for a week. These builds were fermented at room temperature until ripe, then refrigerated until the next feeding. Substituting 10-25% of the white flour with whole grain wheat, rye or a mix will speed fermentation and is generally felt to make the starter “healthier.”

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

771

WW flour

116

Whole Rye flour

116

Water

686

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

1962

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at 80ºF until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

I think I finally nailed it. The crust is super crunchy. The crumb is tender but chewy. The flavor has a decidedly sour flavor with lactic acid tones dominating. Except for the flavors attributable to the rye and whole wheat, I could convince myself this was a Parisian Bakery sourdough bread.

Happy baking!

David

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Sourdough Bread

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

My recent trials of sourdough bread production methods have made some very good breads, but still not exactly what I want. I recall that, about 10 years ago, I baked some breads from a recipe developed by a home baker who was an active participant on The Fresh Loaf at the time, “Susan from San Diego.” At the time, I felt it was the bread I had baked closest to my ideal. So, I thought I would return to that bread, applying some procedures I had adopted with good results since that time.

Of note is that Susan's recipe called for two builds of firm starter before mixing the final dough. As I recall, it produced a rather sour, crusty loaf with a moderately open crumb. Back then, I mixed the dough with a stand mixer. For this bake, I mixed by hand.

I made two loaves. One, I cold retarded for 17 hours then left at room temperature while the oven pre-heated. The second loaf was cold retarded for 40 hours. I was eager to see whether the second would be much more sour, as one would expect.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

125

11

AP flour

803

69

Whole Wheat flour

138

12

Rye flour

92

8

Water

826

71

Salt

23

2

Total

2007

173

 

Starter 1st Build

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

18

75

Rye flour

6

25

Water

12

50

Seed starter (liquid)

6

25

Total

42

175

  1. Dissolve starter in water.

  2. Add flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8 hours.

  4. Proceed to 2nd build or refrigerate 1st build overnight and continue the next day.

 

Starter 2nd Build

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

104

75

Rye flour

35

25

Water

69

50

Starter 1st Build

42

25

Total

250

175

  1. Dissolve starter in water.

  2. Add flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8 hours.

Note: If not ready to make the Final Dough when this starter build is ripe, the starter can be refrigerated for up to 3 days, until you are ready to proceed.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

803

Whole Wheat flour

138

Whole Rye flour

50

Water

743

Starter 2nd Build

250

Salt

23

Total

2007

Procedures

  1. In a large bowl, mix the water and the flours to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the starter in chunks.

  4. Mix the dough to incorporate the added salt and starter uniformly.

  5. Transfer to a clean, lightly-oiled bowl and cover.

  6. Ferment until expanded by 75% with stretch and folds at 30, 60 and 110 minutes. (I do the first two S&F's in the bowl and the third on a lightly floured board.)

  7. Divide the dough as desired and place in floured bannetons or on a couche. Cover.

  8. Proof at room temperature for 1-3 hours, then refrigerate for 8-40 hours (or more?).

  9. If you think the loaves need it, proof at room temperature for additional time before baking.

  10. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  11. Bake: If baking in a Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 30 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 20 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  12. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 30-40 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  13. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  14. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

The crust was crunchy in the darker-baked parts and chewy in the rest. The crumb was moderately open and mildly chewy. The flavor was complex, sweet and creamy. There was the slightest hint of acetic acid tang. Interestingly, even though the whole wheat was only 12% of the total flour, the distinctive flavor of Turkey Red wheat came through.

I baked the second loaf 40 hours after retarding it, including the last hour at room temperature, while the oven preheated. It turned out ... well ... it was kind of spectacular, in my humble opinion.

The crust is crunchier. The crumb has the same chewing consistency - what I call tender/chewy - but it is substantially more open, and the flavor is substantially more sour. Interestingly enough, I think creamy, lactic acid flavors still predominate, but there is more of an acetic acid tang. Now, that is all based on a first taste when the loaf was just completely cooled. If the flavor profile evolves, I'll add a note.

As far as I can recall, I have only retarded dough for more than 24 hours once before. That was an experiment with my San Joaquin Sourdough, and the retardation was of the dough before dividing. Today's loaf is so good, that I believe I'm going to stick with this routine for a while. It sure made delicious bread.

Happy baking!

David 

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Sourdough Bread

Based on the method of Ramon Padilla

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

Ramon Padilla is a retired baker. From 18 years old until he retired, he baked for the Parisian Bakery and the Boudin Bakery in San Francisco. He was the baker responsible for the fabulous sourdough bread served at The Tadich Grill. He told me he baked it at Parisian until they closed and then at Boudin. Today, his brother is head baker at Boudin and still makes the bread for The Tadich Grill. In retirement, Ramon has continued to bake bread at home.

Ramon very generously shared the way he bakes bread currently. Interestingly enough, it has some similarities and some differences compared to the published account of the Larraburu method. The most striking similarity is the very short bulk fermentation and very long proofing. The biggest difference is that Ramon's entire process is at room temperature. He did tell me that getting the dough temperature right is an important consideration. He neglected to tell me his DDT (desired dough temperature).

I have modified Ramon's formula and procedures in a few ways, to suite my taste and schedule. His formula calls for all white flour – high gluten for the starter and all purpose for the final dough. I substituted in a bit of whole wheat and whole rye. Ramon does a long (over 8 hour) final proof at room temperature. In order to fit my schedule and in order to increase the acetic acid production, I proofed at room temperature for a shorter time, then cold retarded the formed loaves and proofed further at a warm temperature before baking.

This is an experiment for me. It is not unlikely I will make modifications after seeing how this bake turns out.

 

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

1000

100

AP

799

80

High-gluten flour

101

10

WW

50

5

Rye

50

5

Water

600

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1620

162


Note:
The original recipe and the San Francisco Sourdough of yore are 100% low extraction (white) flour. I have modified this by including 10% whole grain flour, because that is my preference. Besides effects on flavor complexity and nutrition, the anticipated effects would be: 1) A less open crumb, 2) faster fermentation, 3) enhanced acid production.

Note: 15.7% of the flour is pre-fermented. This is less than most sourdough formulas which average 20-25% pre-fermented flour. The effect would be: 1) A longer fermentation/proofing, 2) more acid content at the time of dividing and shaping.

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-gluten flour

101

75

WW flour

34

25

Water

81

60

Active firm starter

34

25

Total

250

185

Note: The 34g of active firm starter consists of 13g water + 16g AP flour + 5g WW flour.

  1. The night before mixing the Final Dough, dissolve the active firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Cover and ferment at room temperature overnight.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

783

WW flour

11

Rye flour

50

Water (warm)

506

Salt

20

Starter

250

Total

1620

 

Procedures

  1. Place all the ingredients in the bowl of a stand mixer. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough. Final dough temperature was 76ºF.

  2. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board.

  3. Do one stretch and fold. Cover the dough and let it rest for 30 minutes.

  4. Do one more stretch and fold and transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl.

  5. Cover the bowl and ferment at room temperature for 1hour.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces, pre-shape into rounds and cover. Let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons or on a couch, seam-side up.

  8. Cover and let proof at room temperature until 75% proofed (6.5 hours for me at 68ºF).

  9. Refrigerate (cold retard) for 12-32 hours. (The longer, the more sour the bread will be.)*

  10. If you think the loaves need it, proof at room temperature for additional time before baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

* To test the expectation that a longer cold retardation would produce a more sour loaf, I made two loaves. One was baked after 18 hours in the fridge a 2 hours more at room temperature. The other was baked after 22 hours in the fridge and 3 hours more at room temperature. Both were baked on a baking stone, as described in Step 13.

The first photo is of the loaf that was retarded for a longer time. The photo below is of the bread retarded the shorter time.

 

The following photos of crust and crumb are from this second loaf (the one retarded for a shorter time).

The first of these loaves - the one cold retarded for 18 hours - was sliced and tasted when completely cooled. The crust was very crunchy with a nutty flavor. The crumb was cool and chewy. It had a somewhat sweet flavor with a lactic acid-type acidity predominating. It had a hint of acetic acid tang only.  Among the variations of San Francisco Sourdough, this bread was considerably closer to Acme's than to the Parisian/Tadich Grill style. Excellent bread.

The morning after these loaves were baked, I tasted each. The first loaf's flavor had not changed overnight. The second loaf which had been cold retarded a few hours longer had pretty much the same flavor profile but with just a bit more of an acetic acid tang. Wheaty and lactic acid flavors predominated.

These are very good breads. I especially like the very crunchy crust. I think that is the result of the low hydration. I haven't decided where to go next with this series of experiments. I wonder if keeping a firm starter going for a few weeks would encourage heterofermentative lactobacilli to grow and result in more acetic acid flavor.

 Happy baking!

David

 

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Steve Giraudo, whose family owned the company that ultimately controlled Parisian, Colombo, Toscano and Boudin bakeries, sent me links to a couple youtube videos that document the history of those companies. Note that Larraburu was never part of this consortium.  Given the recent interest in SF SD, I thought these would be of interest to many TFL folks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2gKnjbQiRI

This one is parts of a couple TV programs, one with a brief biography of Steve's father, who started baking SF SD in 1935 and ended up owning all the remaining old time bakeries. This is before Acme, Tartine and the new generation. That's another story for another day.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2PVBJdsbs0&t=5s

Enjoy!

David

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San Francisco Style Sourdough Bread

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

This recipe was kindly shared by Ann Rogers who got it from Mike Giraudo. Mike's recipe is his own adaptation of that of Ramon Padilla,who worked for 30 years as a baker for Parisian and Boudin bakeries in San Francisco.

These are the instructions she provided verbatim, followed by my adaptation, reformulated to make 1000g of dough.
------------------------------------------

Mike Giraudo's Recipe (per Ann Rogers)

250g starter (60% hydration)
600g water
1000g flour
20g salt
Makes two 875g loafs

Mix all ingredients 2 minutes on low speed until mixed, then mix 9 more minutes on next level speed. Then a quick stretch and fold, rest dough 30 mins, then stretch and fold one more time. 

Then cover and let dough rest for about 8 hours at room temp. 

After 8 hours, divide and shape into loafs and then into bannetons or lightly oiled containers, cover- then into the refrigerator for at least 12 - 32 hours. (The longer the time, the more sour the bread)

After refrigeration, place immediately into a pre-heated Dutch oven @475 for 20 mins and then uncover and cook for another 10 mins @450 (or until you like the color of your bread.) Feel free to use all purpose flour, makes for a great crumb. 
-------------------------------------------

David Snyder's Adaptation

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

617

100

AP

463

75

WW

154

25

Water

371

60

Salt

12

2

Total

1000

162

 

Note: The original recipe and the San Francisco Sourdough of yore are 100% low extraction (white) flour. I have modified this by including 25% whole wheat flour, because that is my preference. Besides effects on flavor complexity and nutrition, the anticipated effects would be: 1) A less open crumb, 2) faster fermentation, 3) enhanced acid production.

Note: 15.7% of the flour is pre-fermented. This is less than most sourdough formulas which average 20-25% pre-fermented flour. The effect would be: 1) A longer bulk fermentation, 2) more acid content at the time of dividing and shaping.

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

84

100

AP flour

63

75

WW flour

21

25

Water

50

60

Active firm starter

21

25

Total

155

185

Note: The 21g of active firm starter consists of 7g water + 10g AP flour + 3g WW flour.

  1. The night before mixing the Final Dough, dissolve the active firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Cover and ferment at room temperature overnight.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

390

WW flour

130

Water

313

Salt

12

Starter

155

Total

1000

 

Procedures

  1. Place all the ingredients in the bowl of a stand mixer. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  2. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board.

  3. Do one stretch and fold. Cover the dough and let it rest for 30 minutes.

  4. Do one more stretch and fold and transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl.

  5. Cover the bowl and ferment at room temperature for “about8 hours.”

  6. Divide the dough, if smaller loaves are desired, pre-shape into rounds and cover. Let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons.

  8. Refrigerate for 12-32 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  9. Check on degree of proofing. If not sufficiently proofed, remove from refrigerator and proof at room temperature or warmer until adequately proofed. Then procedure to scoring and baking.
  10. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  11. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  12. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Time depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  13. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  14. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 Note: I retarded this loaf for about 15 hours. At the end of that time, it was nowhere near adequately proofed. I placed it in my proofing box set to 80ºF and proofed it for another 2.5 hours, the last hour while my oven pre-heated. You can see from the overly exuberant oven spring and bloom that the loaf was still somewhat under-proofed. I baked it on a pizza stone, as described in Step 12., above, for a total of 50 minutes.

 

I had a couple slice ... well, three ... but one was very thin! The crust was delightfully crunchy. The crumb was pretty open for a 60% hydration, 25% whole grain bread. It was very well aerated, demonstrating good fermentation. The crumb was moderately chewy. The flavor was a bit wheaty and sweet with a moderately prominent acetic acid tang, yet well-balanced. It has the old-fashioned San Francisco Sourdough feel - the genuine article. It's just what I would imagine Parisian "Wharf Bread" to have been like, if they had baked a "whole wheat" version.

I shared my results with Ann Rogers and Mike Giraudo, and Ann reiterated that, if I wanted it more sour, I should just extend the cold retardation to 32 hours (or more!) I am going to do it.

This is a keeper. It is the bread I have been trying to make for many years. I would encourage those who miss the San Francisco Sourdough Bread of yesteryear or just wonder what all the fuss is about, to make this. It's simple and easy and delicious.

 Happy Baking!

David

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