The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

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dmsnyder

We just returned from a week and a half on Maui. It was a long-deferred first visit to that island, and I hope we visit again soon.

We ate well. Hawaii is the home of "Asian Fusion" cuisine, and we ate a lot of it. The fish was simply fabulous - so much better than the very freshest fish I can get where I live. Because we found a fish market with wonderful fish, right off their own boat, I did cook in our rented condo a couple times.

Opakapaka with a wine, soy, ginger, mango salsa. Pok choi and jasmine rice.

Besides fish, we also enjoyed the tropical fruits. We had been to Hawaii twice before, but mangos were never in season. This trip, we had delicious local mangos and, even more, papayas.

The bread scene on Maui is pretty sad, as far as I could discover. But then, except for Portuguese Sweet Bread, it's a rice-based diet. I suppose for native Hawaiians, poi (pounded taro root paste) is the main carbohydrate.

When we got home, I immediately activated my starter, of course, and made a couple loves of my current favorite "daily bread:" For quite a few years, I have thought I truly had at least a dozen "favorite" breads. But, when I was in Nevada for Thanksgiving and a week extra, I discovered how much I liked Ken Forkish's "Field Blend #2." So, for the past couple months I have hardly baked anything else (except for some sandwich rolls made from the FB #2 dough and many loaves of Jewish Sour Rye for a Synagogue fundraiser. Here is what I baked yesterday:

 Not that we grew tired of Hawaiian food - quite the opposite - but I was happy to make another kind of cuisine for a change.

Winey beef stew with parmesan smashed potatoes.

Happy to be home ... sort of.

One of the views from our condo balcony.

Turn clockwise 120 degrees .... Here is another view from the balcony ...

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

Baking December, 2016

I started the Month loafing in Las Vegas. We had Thanksgiving in Henderson, NV this year. One of our sons teaches at UNLV. The deal was that the following weekend, said son and his wife (also a professor at UNLV) went off to a neuroscience conference in Hawaii, leaving my wife and me in charge of (Ha!) two granddaughters. So, we revisited parenthood for a week, complete with JuJitsu lessons, piano lessons, bass guitar practice sessions with rock and roll band, school pick-up and drop-off and cooking. Did I mention that the granddaughters are vegetarian?

Now, this is the same son I had successfully infected with lactobacilli a few years ago, so the granddaughters are accustomed to having delicious home-baked sourdough bread. I baked 3 bakes in a week. The bread I made all three times was Ken Forkish’s “Field Blend 2,” which is a pain au levin-type loaf made with a mix of AP, WW and rye. The reason I didn’t switch breads was that this one was so good.

 

In fact, it was so good, I baked another loaf when we got back home to California. It was good again.  

 

 

Next month, the Fresno Jewish Film Festival film will be preceded by a dinner featuring “Jewish comfort food.” Now, that covers a whole lot of different dishes!  Anyway, I let slip that I bake rye bread and got volunteered. This week, I made a couple loaves to get in the freezer. I’ll do another bake shortly before the dinner. 

 

The best part of the story is that the coordinator of the dinner is the daughter-in-law of the owner/baker of the Jewish bakery in Fresno when I was a child. He’s why I crave rye bread which is why I started baking bread. And his daughter-in-law wants me to teach her to make rye bread! That’s some kind of karma or something!

 

My last “project” for the month was two bakes of Hansjoakim’s “Pain au Levain with rye sour.” This has been  a favorite of mine for several years. I have always followed Hansjoakim’s procedure which includes machine mixing and a single stretch and fold during bulk fermentation. My recent very happy experiences with hand mixing sourdough breads made me wonder how some of the breads I have always machine mixed in the past would be hand mixed. So, I made loaves of Hansjoakim’s bread on two successive days, the first machine mixed and the second mixed by hand and stretched and folded four times at 30 minute intervals during bulk fermentation.

 

Pain au Levain with rye sour, machine mixed

Pain au Levain with rye sour, machine mixed, crumb

Pain au Levain with rye sour, hand mixed

Pain au Levain with rye sour, hand mixed, crumb

All and all, the two bakes yielded pretty much identical results. I preferred the hand mixed version slightly. It had a more tender crumb and crunchier crust. It should be noted that, besides the difference in mixing, I also used a finer milled WW flour in the machine mixed loaf.

 

I made some really tasty breads this month. A good way to close out the year. In the coming year, I already have two “dates” to bake with and teach a couple wannabe sourdough bakers. I’m looking forward to it.

 

I have been less conspicuous on TFL this past year, but I have been gratified to see lots of collaborative problem solving happening. That is the heart of TFL, as far as I’m concerned. I think we participate in one of the interpersonally healthiest corners of the online universe, and Floyd deserves all the credit and a whole lot of appreciation for creating and maintaining it.

 So, a happy, healthy, peaceful and sane New Year to all and Happy Baking!

David

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dmsnyder

My quest for “Old-Style” San Francisco Sourdough bread: A tasty digression

October, 2016

 

This trial builds on what I learned from my first two trials. It is a bit of a detour in that I have made some changes that, I hope, result in a bread more to my current taste, even though it deviates from the breads of the old style in having higher hydration and whole grain flours.

 

Total Dough

Wt (g)

Bakers %

Hi-protein flour #

42

10

Bread flour +

264

61

Whole Wheat flour

87

20

Whole Rye flour

44

10

Water

305

70

Salt

8

1.8

Total

750

172.8

# I used KAF Sir Lancelot flour (14% protein)

+ I used Central Milling ABC flour (11.5% protein).

 

Sponge

Wt (g)

Bakers %

High-protein flour (14%)

32

100

Water

16

50

Firm starter*

16

50

Total

64

200

* The starter should have been fed within the preceding 3 days. It may be refrigerated after the last feeding. Optionally, one can make extra starter with this formula to save, after being fermented, for use in generating the next sponge.

  1. Dissolve the firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the high-protein flour and knead until all the flour is well-hydrated.

  3. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate overnight or up to 3 days.

 

Final Dough

Wt (g)

Bread flour

264

Whole Wheat flour

87

Whole Rye flour

44

Water

283

Sponge

64

Salt

8

Total

750

Procedures

  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer, add the water and flours and mix at Speed 1 to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 20-60 minutes. (Note: This autolyse step is my addition. It was not used in the original method.)

  2. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the sponge in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 1 or 2 minutes until the ingredients are evenly distributed.

  3. Mix at Speed 2 for 10-12 minutes, until an medium window pane stage of gluten development.

  4. Cover the mixer bowl and let the dough rest for 20 minutes at 90ºF.

  5. Pre-shape as boule, cover with a damp cloth or plasti-crap and let rest at room temperature for 30 minutes.

  6. Shape as a boule and place in floured banneton. Place banneton in a plastic bag and seal.

  7. The journal article says the bakery proofed for 5-8 hours at 85-90ºF. Monitor the loaf frequently after 4 hours using the “poke test.” Proofing is sufficient when the dough is poked with a finger and springs back to fill the hole slowly.

  8. Place the banneton in the refrigerator for 8 to 24 hours.

  9. Pre-heat oven for 1 hour at 500ºF with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  10. Just before baking, transfer the loaf to a peel and score as desired.

  11. Bake with steam at 460ºF for 15 minutes, then for another 25-30 minutes. (I did the second part of the bake with the oven set to 440ºF, Convection Bake.

  12. Remove to a rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

Okay. This is more that a “detour.” It's a different bread. It is a really good pain au campagne, I would say. The crust is chewy. The crumb is tender. It is moderately sour – less so than I expected, actually. But it has a predominant sweet, wheaty, mellow flavor. I think there is a lot of lactic acid influence there.

 I will be getting back to my quest to replicate old-style San Francisco Sourdough, but this diversion produced a bread I am going to want to make again.

 Happy baking!

David

 

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dmsnyder

Colombo, Parisian, Larraburu. These bakeries produced the bread that made “San Francisco Sourdough” unarguably the most iconic bread produced in America. They are all gone now, and while San Francisco is still (again?) home to some amazingly delicious sourdough breads, the only place to get that old-style San Francisco Sourdough bread is at the Tadich Grill restaurant. Theirs is especially made by Boudin Bakery and is not available anywhere else.

The methods used by those old bakeries are documented in the bread science literature. There were studies of the bacteriology of San Francisco Sourdough cultures published in the 1970's while those bakeries were still in business. The bakery formulas and methods were incidentally included in some of these articles. The methods were quite different from those prescribed in currently popular bread baking books which are modeled on French approaches largely, I think. While those certainly produce great bread, they have very different crumb structures and flavor from the San Francisco Sourdoughs of the 1950 to 1975 era, which is what I grew up on and loved.

 I have previously attempted to produce San Francisco-style Sourdough, and, while it made good bread, I have never closely followed the methods described in those articles. It's time I did so.

  

Total Dough

Wt (g)

Bakers %

Hi-protein flour #

42

9

Bread flour +

423

91

Water

277

60

Salt

8

1.7

Total

750

161.7

# I used KAF Sir Lancelot flour (14% protein)

+ I used half KAF bread flour (12.5% protein) and half Central Milling ABC flour (11.5% protein) for Trial #1 and all ABC flour for Trial #2.

 

Sponge

Wt (g)

Bakers %

High-protein flour (14%)

32

100

Water

16

50

Firm starter*

16

50

Total

64

200

* The starter should have been fed within the preceding 3 days. It may be refrigerated after the last feeding. Optionally, one can make extra starter with this formula to save, after being fermented, for use in generating the next sponge.

  1. Dissolve the firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the high-protein flour and knead until all the flour is well-hydrated.

  3. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours. (I fermented the sponge 10.5 hours.)

 

Final Dough

Wt (g)

Bakers %

Bread flour

423

100

Water

255

60

Sponge

64

15

Salt

8

2

Total

750

177

 

Procedures

  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer, add the water and flour and mix at Speed 1 to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 20-60 minutes. (Note: This autolyse step is my addition. It was not used in the original method.)

  2. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the sponge in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 1 or 2 minutes until the ingredients are evenly distributed.

  3. Mix at Speed 2 for 8-10 minutes, until an early window pane stage of gluten development. (Note: The articles do not give mixing instructions. The very short bulk fermentation and relatively long proofing is characteristic of breads subjected to “intensive mixing.” I did not want to do that.)

  4. Cover the mixer bowl and ferment the dough at room temperature for 1 hour.

  5. Pre-shape as a ball and let rest for 20-30 minutes, covered with a towel.

  6. Shape as a boule or bâtard and proof on a couche or in a banneton for 4 hours at 105ºF and 96% humidity.

  7. Bake on a baking stone with steam for the first 15 minutes at 420ºF for 40-50 minutes altogether. (Note: I prefer a bolder bake, so I actually baked at 460ºF for 35 minutes. Obviously, time and temperature would be adjusted according to how dark you wanted the crust, how heavy the loaf is and the shape of the loaf.)

  8. Transfer to a rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

Trial bake #1

I fermented the sponge and proofed the loaf in my Brød and Taylor Proofing Box. For proofing, I put a bowl of water in the proofing box, along with a boule wrapped in bakers' linen and place on an inverted 1/4 sheet pan. At 3.75 hours, I took the loaf out. It was very puffy, possibly over-proofed. A “skin” had formed on the surface. The bowl of water had not provided a moist enough proofing environment. Next time, I will think about proofing in a covered container or in a banneton enclosed in a plastic bag.

Results

Trial #1 Loaf

 

Trial #1 Crumb

Consistent with over-proofing, the crust was rather pale and dull. The oven spring was modest with relatively little bloom. The crust was a bit tough, not crunchy nor chewy. The crumb was surprisingly even. The flavor was good sourdough white bread – a little bit sweet with lactic acid flavors predominating and just a bit of acetic acid tang. Not bad bread but certainly not what I wanted to produce.

Trial bake #2

This second trial is my adaptation of slightly different procedure described in another journal article, the well-known 1970 Kline, Sugihara and McCready article with first documented the micro-flora population of San Francisco Sourdoughs. I used the same ingredients, changing the fermentation and proofing procedures.

Procedures

  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer, add the water and flour and mix at Speed 1 to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 20-60 minutes. (Note: This autolyse step is my addition. It was not used in the original method.)

  2. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the sponge in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 1 or 2 minutes until the ingredients are evenly distributed.

  3. Mix at Speed 2 for 8-10 minutes, until an early window pane stage of gluten development.

  4. Cover the mixer bowl and let the dough rest for 20 minutes at 80ºF.

  5. Pre-shape as boule, put on a pie tin, place the tin in a plastic bag and let rest at room temperature for 30 minutes.

  6. Shape as a boule and place in floured banneton. Place banneton in a plastic bag and seal.

  7. The journal article says the bakery proofed for 6-8 hours at 85-90ºF. I proofed at 85ºF but found the loaf fully proofed after 5 hours. In hopes of enhancing acetic acid production, I chose to cold retard the loaf until the next day.

  8. Pre-heat oven for 1 hour at 500ºF with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  9. Bake with steam at 460ºF for 15 minutes, then for another 25-30 minutes.

  10. Remove to a rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

Results

Trial #2 Loaf

 

Trial #2 Crust (with crackles)

 

Trial #2 Crumb

The crust was darker than Trial bake #1. In fact, it was the color of the Parisian San Francisco Sourdough I remember. It is not as dark as the bread Boudin makes for Tadich Grill, which I would prefer. On slicing, the crumb is very compact, appropriate for a 60% hydration loaf. I have become so accustomed to breads made with higher hydration dough, this is startling. Nothing really wrong with it, just different.

The aroma of the cut bread is mild. It isn't particularly sour. It smells like nice sweet pain au levain. On tasting, the crust is satisfactorily crunchy. It is mildly nutty. As I said, I prefer a darker crust. The crumb is surprisingly tender with just a mild chewiness. It does not have the shredability of classic San Francisco Sourdough. I'm not sure how to achieve that. The flavor is predominantly sweet and buttery. There is a mild but “correct” sourdough tang. It has that special flavor, which is not merely a bigger slug of acetic acid, but is a combination of flavor tones from both acetic and lactic acids. This bread is weighted more on the lactic acid side than my personal ideal.

I am happy with Trial bake #2.  Progress has been made, but there is more work to be done. I may increase the dough hydration a bit. I may fiddle with the fermentation temperature and the length of the cold retardation. At some point, I will surely add some whole grain flour. It may be that keeping the all white, high gluten flour firm starter going may improve the bread flavor over time. One can hope.

Any ideas or suggestions from the TFL community would be appreciated.

Happy baking!

 David

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dmsnyder

This weekend, I wanted to make a rye bread to go with smoked fish, and, since I was refreshing my rye sour anyway, I also made a pain au levain with a rye starter. The rye is another Berliner Landsbrot (thank you Stan Ginsberg). The Pain au levain is a formula posted quite a while back by Hansjoakim. Formulas for both are available on TFL.

This is a delicious bread. It is 90% rye, and the dough has almost no gluten to help form a loaf. It's really sticky. Yet, for some reason that totally escapes my understanding, it is really easy to handle and shape, considering. Did I say it's delicious?

This is another bread with a delicious flavor and a classically crunchy crust. (Ooooo! I just noticed the crust crackle in the loaf behind this slice!) It made a fine sandwich with some white meat from the chicken roasted for dinner last night.

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

We like hummus and generally buy it "homemade" at a neighborhood Armenian deli. We also buy the pita bread they sell, which is made locally but not in the deli. It's sold in plastic bags, six to a bag. It's not terrible. 

I recently checked an Israeli cookbook out of the library. It had a recipe for pita, not the first I had seen, but the book made a big deal about the superiority of fresh-baked pita over the kind I had been buying. So I made a batch.

Know what? Fresh-baked is better! In fact, home baked is better than store bought, even after freezing and thawing. Why should I be surprised?

I am not posting the recipe, because I am not convinced what I baked cannot be improved upon. Stay tuned.

Yesterday, I baked a couple 1kg loaves of sort of  Ken Forkish's "Overnight Country Brown." The only "overnighting" was cold retardation of the formed loaves. And, rather than boules baked in cast iron Dutch ovens, I made bâtards, baked in my usual manner, on a baking stone with steaming via ice cubes dripping onto pre-heated lava rocks. I'm posting the photos just to remind us that the DO method, while producing wonderful loaves isn't the only way to do so with the Forkish (or Chad Robertson) formulas. These loaves have a delicious crunchy crust and tender crumb. Wonderful whole wheaty flavor with mild tang.

Between this bread with 30% WW and the Forkishish Pain de Campagne I make with WW and whole rye, it's hard to choose a favorite. They are both so good!

Happy baking!

David

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dmsnyder

Nothing new and exciting baking here this week, except my wife's French Plum Crisp. I baked a couple of my go to breads. My version of Forkish's Pain de Campagne, very different from his, actually. I do use his baking procedure, although it's really Chad Robertson's. Oh, well. It makes really good, crusty bread.

And a couple loaves of San Joaquin Sourdough. Here's one of them, just to make a point:

  \ See the point?

Happy baking, every one!

David

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dmsnyder

A relatively new TFL member recently asked how to make a sourdough bread. His description of the desired characteristics brought to mind a bread we made in the San Francisco Baking Institute Artisan II Workshop on sourdough baking. It was a decidedly French-style pain au levain with minimal acidic acid tanginess but a creamy, sweet complex flavor. It was the preferred bread of the SFBI faculty. The special features of this white bread were a liquid levain fed every 12 hours that made up about 30% of the total flour in the final dough.

My bake differed slightly from the original, but I give the SFBI formula as it was given to us.

 

Total Dough Formula 

Baker's %

Wt (g)

AP flour

99.2

641

Rye flour

0.8

5

Water

68

438

Instant yeast (optional)

0.1

0.5

Salt

2.1

13

Total

170.4

1097.5

 

Levain

Baker's %

Wt (g)

AP flour

95

102

Rye flour

5

5

Water

100

108

Liquid starter

40

43

Total

240

258

Note: for the starter feedings, including the levain mix, I actually used my usual starter feeding mix of 70% AP, 20% WW and 10% Rye. So, in the levain, rather than the AP and Rye specified in the SFBI formula, I used 107 g of the above mix.

  1. Mix ingredients thoroughly.

  2. Ferment 12 hours at room temperature. (Note: Because of my own scheduling needs, I refrigerated the levain overnight before mixing the final dough. This was not the procedure at the SFBI, and it would be expected to make the bread somewhat more sour. If you can, omit this levain retardation.)

Final Dough

Baker's %

Wt (g)

AP flour

100

517

Water

60

310

Instant yeast (optional)

0.1

0.06

Liquid starter

50

259

Salt

2.5

13

Total

212.6

1099.06

Procedures

  1. In the bowl of a stand mixer with the paddle attachment, pour in the water, add the liquid starter and mix to dissolve the starter.
  2. Add the flour and mix to a shaggy mass.

  3. Let rest, covered, for 20-60 minutes.

  4. Add the salt (and yeast, if you are using it) and mix with the dough hook at Speed 2 for 5-6 minutes. Adjust flour or water to achieve a medium consistency. (Note: I did not use added instant yeast.)

  5. Ferment for 2-3 hours at 76ºF with 1 or 2 folds, as needed to strengthen the dough. (Note: The fermentation time depends on whether you use the instant yeast and on your fermentation temperature. As usual, “Watch the dough, not the clock.” The dough should end up expanded by 25-50% and should be light and gassy. If you ferment in a transparent container, your should see the dough to be well-populated with tiny bubbles.)

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces and pre-shape as boules or cylinders.

  7. Let the pieces rest, covered, for 25-30 minutes.

  8. Shape as boules or bâtards.

  9. Proof for 90-120 minutes at 80ºF. (I had a class to teach, so I refrigerated the loaves for 3 hours, then proofed for 2 hours at 80dF)

  10. Bake at 460ºF with steam for 25 minutes. ( I baked at 460dF with steam for 12 minutes, then another 16 minutes at 435dF convection bake in a dry oven.)

  11. Leave in the turned-off oven with the door ajar for another 10 minutes. (Optional)

  12. Cool thoroughly on a rack before slicing.

I also baked a couple loaves of a Pain de Campagne. It is based on the one in FWSY, except I leave out the instant yeast and boost the whole grain flours a bunch. For today's bake, I halved the recipe in the book to make 1100g of dough and divided that into two. We are traveling next week, and I wanted to take a small loaf along for breakfasts and picnics.

Happy baking!

David

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Wifely complement of the week: "What do you call this bread … so I know how to ask you to make it again?" Well, I couldn’t think of what to call it. I have made it before … sort of. It is based on Forkish’s “Pain de Campagne” from FWSY, except with a different flour mix, no commercial yeast and a different fermentation schedule. I’ve generally called such breads “in the spirt of …” whatever my starting point was.

Anyway, it is awfully good bread - very moist, wheaty and only mildly sour.

 

 

Since it is still berry season, and we have been getting really tasty, local, organic blueberries, I also made some muffins.

 

 

Happy baking!

David

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Hansjoakim's Pain au Levain with Rye Sour

June 3, 2016

Hansjoakim contributed this formula to TFL a bit more than two years ago. (Sourdough bread and fyrstekake) It was added to my “to bake list” right away. Well, I am finally getting around to baking it, since I had extra ripe rye sour looking for a meaningful role, and I was in the mood to try something new.

I have baked breads which had both rye- and wheat-flour based starters, but I had not yet baked a mostly wheat flour-based bread leavened by a rye sour alone. It's about time!

I have used Hansjoakim's formula without modification. However, I have rounded his ingredient weights to the nearest gram, reflecting the limitations of my kitchen scale. The procedures described are what I did. Hansjoakim's procedures may have differed somewhat.

 

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt. (g)

Bakers' %

AP Flour (11.7% protein)

350

80

Whole Rye flour

55

12.5

Whole Wheat flour

33

7.5

Water

306

70

Salt

8

1.8

Total

752

171.8

  

Rye Sour

 

 

Ingredient

Wt. (g)

Bakers' %

Whole Rye flour

55

100

Water

55

100

Ripe rye sour

11

20

Total

121

220

  1. Dissolve the ripe rye sour in the water.

  2. Add the whole rye flour and mix to a paste.

  3. Cover and ferment at room temperature for 12 hours.

  

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt. (g)

AP flour

350

Whole wheat flour

33

Water

251

Salt

8

Rye sour

110

Total

752

Procedure

  1. Pour the water into the bowl of a stand mixer, and add the rye sour. Mix at Speed1 for a minute to disburse the sour.

  2. Add the flours. Mix at Speed one to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest for 30-60 minutes.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough, and mix with the dough hook for 2-4 minutes at Speed 2.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly oiled bowl and cover.

  5. Ferment for 2-2.5 hours with one stretch and fold after 1 hour.

  6. Transfer to a lightly floured board and pre-shape as a ball. Cover and let rest for 20 minutes.

  7. Shape as boule or bâtard and place in a floured banneton or brotform. Alternatively, place on a linen couche.

  8. Cover the loaf well (place banneton in a food safe plastic bag, or with a fold of the couche material).

  9. Refrigerate overnight or at least 8 hours.

  10. Take the loaf out of the refrigerator. Proof at 80ºF for 1-2 hours.

  11. Pre-heat the oven for 45-60 minutes at 500ºF with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  12. Transfer the loaf to a peel. Steam the oven, and transfer the loaf to the baking stone. Turn the oven temperature down to 460ºF.

  13. After 15 minutes, remove the steaming apparatus. If you have a convection option, switch to convection bake at 435ºF. Otherwise, leave the oven at 460ºF.

  14. Bake for another 25-35 minutes. The loaf is done when it is nicely colored, it sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom and the internal temperature is at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer to a cooling rack, and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

Photo Gallery

 

Tasting Notes

The crust was crunchy with a nice nutty flavor. The crumb was quite open – well-aerated. It was surprisingly chewy, given how little machine mixing I did and only one stretch and fold. The flavor was very similar to Hamelman's Pain au Levain with Whole Wheat Flour but more sour. I suppose this is the result of using the rye sour for leavening. This makes me want to try using a rye sour with some other flour mixes and other fermentation approaches. Stay tuned!

I expect there will be some evolution of the flavor profile. I have tasted it just a few hours after it came out of the oven. But based on this first taste, it is most definitely a keeper! I recommend it highly.

Happy baking!

 David

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