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Sourdough Bread: March 22, 2019

David Snyder

This bake is a kind of hybrid (high bread?). It utilizes elements of the formula and method shared by Mike Giraudo on Facebook, Peter Reinhart's James Beard Award-winning “San Francisco Sourdough,” as presented in his book, “Crust and Crumb” and various techniques I have adopted over the years, such as autolyse.

The fermentations in a warm environment should enhance yeast and lactobacillus growth and production of lactic acid. The cold retardations and low hydration of the starter and the final dough should enhance acetic acid production. I am hoping the final result will be a moderately sour bread with a pleasing balance of flavors.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

152

13

AP flour

771

66

Whole Wheat flour

116

10

Whole Rye flour

131

11

Water

769

65

Salt

23

2

Total

1962

167

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

110

88

Whole Rye flour

15

12

Water

62.5

50

Firm starter

62.5

50

Total

250

200

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8-10 hours.

  4. Refrigerate for 12 hours or up to 3 days.

Note: Prior to mixing this starter, I fed a firm starter with high-protein flour at 50% hydration every other day for a week. These builds were fermented at room temperature until ripe, then refrigerated until the next feeding. Substituting 10-25% of the white flour with whole grain wheat, rye or a mix will speed fermentation and is generally felt to make the starter “healthier.”

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

771

WW flour

116

Whole Rye flour

116

Water

686

Salt

23

Starter

250

Total

1962

Procedures

  1. Place the flours and water in the bowl of a stand mixer and mix at low speed to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let it rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the surface of the dough. Add the starter in chunks. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  4. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Shape into a ball.

  5. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl and ferment at 80ºF for about 3 hours with stretch and folds at 50 and 100 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons. Cover or place in food-grade plastic bags.

  8. Proof for 2-3 hours at 80ºF until the loaves have expanded by about 50%.

  9. Refrigerate for 12-40 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  10. Remove from refrigerator. Check on degree of proofing. Proof further at 80ºF, as needed. (May need 1-3 hours.) If adequately proofed, proceed to scoring and baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

I think I finally nailed it. The crust is super crunchy. The crumb is tender but chewy. The flavor has a decidedly sour flavor with lactic acid tones dominating. Except for the flavors attributable to the rye and whole wheat, I could convince myself this was a Parisian Bakery sourdough bread.

Happy baking!

David

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Sourdough Bread

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

My recent trials of sourdough bread production methods have made some very good breads, but still not exactly what I want. I recall that, about 10 years ago, I baked some breads from a recipe developed by a home baker who was an active participant on The Fresh Loaf at the time, “Susan from San Diego.” At the time, I felt it was the bread I had baked closest to my ideal. So, I thought I would return to that bread, applying some procedures I had adopted with good results since that time.

Of note is that Susan's recipe called for two builds of firm starter before mixing the final dough. As I recall, it produced a rather sour, crusty loaf with a moderately open crumb. Back then, I mixed the dough with a stand mixer. For this bake, I mixed by hand.

I made two loaves. One, I cold retarded for 17 hours then left at room temperature while the oven pre-heated. The second loaf was cold retarded for 40 hours. I was eager to see whether the second would be much more sour, as one would expect.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

125

11

AP flour

803

69

Whole Wheat flour

138

12

Rye flour

92

8

Water

826

71

Salt

23

2

Total

2007

173

 

Starter 1st Build

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

18

75

Rye flour

6

25

Water

12

50

Seed starter (liquid)

6

25

Total

42

175

  1. Dissolve starter in water.

  2. Add flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8 hours.

  4. Proceed to 2nd build or refrigerate 1st build overnight and continue the next day.

 

Starter 2nd Build

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-protein flour

104

75

Rye flour

35

25

Water

69

50

Starter 1st Build

42

25

Total

250

175

  1. Dissolve starter in water.

  2. Add flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Ferment at 76ºF for 8 hours.

Note: If not ready to make the Final Dough when this starter build is ripe, the starter can be refrigerated for up to 3 days, until you are ready to proceed.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

803

Whole Wheat flour

138

Whole Rye flour

50

Water

743

Starter 2nd Build

250

Salt

23

Total

2007

Procedures

  1. In a large bowl, mix the water and the flours to a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover the bowl and let rest (autolyse) for 1-2 hours.

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and add the starter in chunks.

  4. Mix the dough to incorporate the added salt and starter uniformly.

  5. Transfer to a clean, lightly-oiled bowl and cover.

  6. Ferment until expanded by 75% with stretch and folds at 30, 60 and 110 minutes. (I do the first two S&F's in the bowl and the third on a lightly floured board.)

  7. Divide the dough as desired and place in floured bannetons or on a couche. Cover.

  8. Proof at room temperature for 1-3 hours, then refrigerate for 8-40 hours (or more?).

  9. If you think the loaves need it, proof at room temperature for additional time before baking.

  10. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  11. Bake: If baking in a Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 30 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 20 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  12. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 30-40 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  13. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  14. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

The crust was crunchy in the darker-baked parts and chewy in the rest. The crumb was moderately open and mildly chewy. The flavor was complex, sweet and creamy. There was the slightest hint of acetic acid tang. Interestingly, even though the whole wheat was only 12% of the total flour, the distinctive flavor of Turkey Red wheat came through.

I baked the second loaf 40 hours after retarding it, including the last hour at room temperature, while the oven preheated. It turned out ... well ... it was kind of spectacular, in my humble opinion.

The crust is crunchier. The crumb has the same chewing consistency - what I call tender/chewy - but it is substantially more open, and the flavor is substantially more sour. Interestingly enough, I think creamy, lactic acid flavors still predominate, but there is more of an acetic acid tang. Now, that is all based on a first taste when the loaf was just completely cooled. If the flavor profile evolves, I'll add a note.

As far as I can recall, I have only retarded dough for more than 24 hours once before. That was an experiment with my San Joaquin Sourdough, and the retardation was of the dough before dividing. Today's loaf is so good, that I believe I'm going to stick with this routine for a while. It sure made delicious bread.

Happy baking!

David 

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Sourdough Bread

Based on the method of Ramon Padilla

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

Ramon Padilla is a retired baker. From 18 years old until he retired, he baked for the Parisian Bakery and the Boudin Bakery in San Francisco. He was the baker responsible for the fabulous sourdough bread served at The Tadich Grill. He told me he baked it at Parisian until they closed and then at Boudin. Today, his brother is head baker at Boudin and still makes the bread for The Tadich Grill. In retirement, Ramon has continued to bake bread at home.

Ramon very generously shared the way he bakes bread currently. Interestingly enough, it has some similarities and some differences compared to the published account of the Larraburu method. The most striking similarity is the very short bulk fermentation and very long proofing. The biggest difference is that Ramon's entire process is at room temperature. He did tell me that getting the dough temperature right is an important consideration. He neglected to tell me his DDT (desired dough temperature).

I have modified Ramon's formula and procedures in a few ways, to suite my taste and schedule. His formula calls for all white flour – high gluten for the starter and all purpose for the final dough. I substituted in a bit of whole wheat and whole rye. Ramon does a long (over 8 hour) final proof at room temperature. In order to fit my schedule and in order to increase the acetic acid production, I proofed at room temperature for a shorter time, then cold retarded the formed loaves and proofed further at a warm temperature before baking.

This is an experiment for me. It is not unlikely I will make modifications after seeing how this bake turns out.

 

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

1000

100

AP

799

80

High-gluten flour

101

10

WW

50

5

Rye

50

5

Water

600

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1620

162


Note:
The original recipe and the San Francisco Sourdough of yore are 100% low extraction (white) flour. I have modified this by including 10% whole grain flour, because that is my preference. Besides effects on flavor complexity and nutrition, the anticipated effects would be: 1) A less open crumb, 2) faster fermentation, 3) enhanced acid production.

Note: 15.7% of the flour is pre-fermented. This is less than most sourdough formulas which average 20-25% pre-fermented flour. The effect would be: 1) A longer fermentation/proofing, 2) more acid content at the time of dividing and shaping.

 

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High-gluten flour

101

75

WW flour

34

25

Water

81

60

Active firm starter

34

25

Total

250

185

Note: The 34g of active firm starter consists of 13g water + 16g AP flour + 5g WW flour.

  1. The night before mixing the Final Dough, dissolve the active firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Cover and ferment at room temperature overnight.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

783

WW flour

11

Rye flour

50

Water (warm)

506

Salt

20

Starter

250

Total

1620

 

Procedures

  1. Place all the ingredients in the bowl of a stand mixer. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough. Final dough temperature was 76ºF.

  2. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board.

  3. Do one stretch and fold. Cover the dough and let it rest for 30 minutes.

  4. Do one more stretch and fold and transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl.

  5. Cover the bowl and ferment at room temperature for 1hour.

  6. Divide the dough into two equal pieces, pre-shape into rounds and cover. Let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons or on a couch, seam-side up.

  8. Cover and let proof at room temperature until 75% proofed (6.5 hours for me at 68ºF).

  9. Refrigerate (cold retard) for 12-32 hours. (The longer, the more sour the bread will be.)*

  10. If you think the loaves need it, proof at room temperature for additional time before baking.

  11. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  12. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  13. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  14. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  15. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

* To test the expectation that a longer cold retardation would produce a more sour loaf, I made two loaves. One was baked after 18 hours in the fridge a 2 hours more at room temperature. The other was baked after 22 hours in the fridge and 3 hours more at room temperature. Both were baked on a baking stone, as described in Step 13.

The first photo is of the loaf that was retarded for a longer time. The photo below is of the bread retarded the shorter time.

 

The following photos of crust and crumb are from this second loaf (the one retarded for a shorter time).

The first of these loaves - the one cold retarded for 18 hours - was sliced and tasted when completely cooled. The crust was very crunchy with a nutty flavor. The crumb was cool and chewy. It had a somewhat sweet flavor with a lactic acid-type acidity predominating. It had a hint of acetic acid tang only.  Among the variations of San Francisco Sourdough, this bread was considerably closer to Acme's than to the Parisian/Tadich Grill style. Excellent bread.

The morning after these loaves were baked, I tasted each. The first loaf's flavor had not changed overnight. The second loaf which had been cold retarded a few hours longer had pretty much the same flavor profile but with just a bit more of an acetic acid tang. Wheaty and lactic acid flavors predominated.

These are very good breads. I especially like the very crunchy crust. I think that is the result of the low hydration. I haven't decided where to go next with this series of experiments. I wonder if keeping a firm starter going for a few weeks would encourage heterofermentative lactobacilli to grow and result in more acetic acid flavor.

 Happy baking!

David

 

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Steve Giraudo, whose family owned the company that ultimately controlled Parisian, Colombo, Toscano and Boudin bakeries, sent me links to a couple youtube videos that document the history of those companies. Note that Larraburu was never part of this consortium.  Given the recent interest in SF SD, I thought these would be of interest to many TFL folks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2gKnjbQiRI

This one is parts of a couple TV programs, one with a brief biography of Steve's father, who started baking SF SD in 1935 and ended up owning all the remaining old time bakeries. This is before Acme, Tartine and the new generation. That's another story for another day.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2PVBJdsbs0&t=5s

Enjoy!

David

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San Francisco Style Sourdough Bread

March, 2019

David Snyder

 

This recipe was kindly shared by Ann Rogers who got it from Mike Giraudo. Mike's recipe is his own adaptation of that of Ramon Padilla,who worked for 30 years as a baker for Parisian and Boudin bakeries in San Francisco.

These are the instructions she provided verbatim, followed by my adaptation, reformulated to make 1000g of dough.
------------------------------------------

Mike Giraudo's Recipe (per Ann Rogers)

250g starter (60% hydration)
600g water
1000g flour
20g salt
Makes two 875g loafs

Mix all ingredients 2 minutes on low speed until mixed, then mix 9 more minutes on next level speed. Then a quick stretch and fold, rest dough 30 mins, then stretch and fold one more time. 

Then cover and let dough rest for about 8 hours at room temp. 

After 8 hours, divide and shape into loafs and then into bannetons or lightly oiled containers, cover- then into the refrigerator for at least 12 - 32 hours. (The longer the time, the more sour the bread)

After refrigeration, place immediately into a pre-heated Dutch oven @475 for 20 mins and then uncover and cook for another 10 mins @450 (or until you like the color of your bread.) Feel free to use all purpose flour, makes for a great crumb. 
-------------------------------------------

David Snyder's Adaptation

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

617

100

AP

463

75

WW

154

25

Water

371

60

Salt

12

2

Total

1000

162

 

Note: The original recipe and the San Francisco Sourdough of yore are 100% low extraction (white) flour. I have modified this by including 25% whole wheat flour, because that is my preference. Besides effects on flavor complexity and nutrition, the anticipated effects would be: 1) A less open crumb, 2) faster fermentation, 3) enhanced acid production.

Note: 15.7% of the flour is pre-fermented. This is less than most sourdough formulas which average 20-25% pre-fermented flour. The effect would be: 1) A longer bulk fermentation, 2) more acid content at the time of dividing and shaping.

Starter

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Total flour

84

100

AP flour

63

75

WW flour

21

25

Water

50

60

Active firm starter

21

25

Total

155

185

Note: The 21g of active firm starter consists of 7g water + 10g AP flour + 3g WW flour.

  1. The night before mixing the Final Dough, dissolve the active firm starter in the water.

  2. Add the flours and mix thoroughly.

  3. Cover and ferment at room temperature overnight.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

AP flour

390

WW flour

130

Water

313

Salt

12

Starter

155

Total

1000

 

Procedures

  1. Place all the ingredients in the bowl of a stand mixer. Mix at Speed 1 for 2 minutes to distribute ingredients then for about 9 minutes at Speed 2 to develop the dough.

  2. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board.

  3. Do one stretch and fold. Cover the dough and let it rest for 30 minutes.

  4. Do one more stretch and fold and transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl.

  5. Cover the bowl and ferment at room temperature for “about8 hours.”

  6. Divide the dough, if smaller loaves are desired, pre-shape into rounds and cover. Let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape as boules or bâtards and place in floured bannetons.

  8. Refrigerate for 12-32 hours (The longer the cold retardation, the more sour the final loaf).

  9. Check on degree of proofing. If not sufficiently proofed, remove from refrigerator and proof at room temperature or warmer until adequately proofed. Then procedure to scoring and baking.
  10. Transfer to a peel. Score as desired.

  11. Bake: If baking in Dutch oven, bake at 475ºF covered for 20 minutes, then uncovered at 450ºF for another 10 minutes or until done to satisfaction.

  12. Bake: If baking on the hearth, pre-heat oven at 500ºF for 1 hour with baking stone and steaming apparatus in place. Turn down oven to 460. Load loaf and steam oven. After 15 minutes, remove steam and continue baking for 20-35 minutes, until loaf is baked. (Time depends on size and shape of loaf.)

  13. The bread is done when the crust is nicely colored and the loaf sounds hollow when thumped on the bottom. The internal temperature should be at least 205ºF.

  14. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack and cool thoroughly before slicing.

 Note: I retarded this loaf for about 15 hours. At the end of that time, it was nowhere near adequately proofed. I placed it in my proofing box set to 80ºF and proofed it for another 2.5 hours, the last hour while my oven pre-heated. You can see from the overly exuberant oven spring and bloom that the loaf was still somewhat under-proofed. I baked it on a pizza stone, as described in Step 12., above, for a total of 50 minutes.

 

I had a couple slice ... well, three ... but one was very thin! The crust was delightfully crunchy. The crumb was pretty open for a 60% hydration, 25% whole grain bread. It was very well aerated, demonstrating good fermentation. The crumb was moderately chewy. The flavor was a bit wheaty and sweet with a moderately prominent acetic acid tang, yet well-balanced. It has the old-fashioned San Francisco Sourdough feel - the genuine article. It's just what I would imagine Parisian "Wharf Bread" to have been like, if they had baked a "whole wheat" version.

I shared my results with Ann Rogers and Mike Giraudo, and Ann reiterated that, if I wanted it more sour, I should just extend the cold retardation to 32 hours (or more!) I am going to do it.

This is a keeper. It is the bread I have been trying to make for many years. I would encourage those who miss the San Francisco Sourdough Bread of yesteryear or just wonder what all the fuss is about, to make this. It's simple and easy and delicious.

 Happy Baking!

David

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Mixed Grain Sourdough Bread 

March, 2019

David M. Snyder

 

 

After the disappointing attempt to replicate Larraburu Brothers' San Francisco Sourdough Bread, I needed solace. The best cure for failure is to get up and do better. 

I had recently had a nice message exchange with Dan Larsson, a very talented young Swedish baker. He posted photos on Instagram of a gorgeous loaf that was 20% fresh-milled Einkorn flour. In response to my questioning, Dan said Einkorn added a lot of good flavor and also speeded up fermentation. (It was not clear that was an Einkorn or just a whole grain flour effect.) Anyway, I decided to formulate a sourdough bread with 20% Einkorn just to see what I thought. I happened to have a bag or Einkorn berries, and I milled some fine Einkorn flour with my Mockmill100 for this test.

 

Total dough

Bakers' %

Wt (g)

AP flour

79

480

Whole rye flour

2

11

Whole wheat (Einkorn) flour

19

118

Salt

2

12

Water

75

457

Total

177

1078


Note:
I fed my starter with a flour mix consisting of 70% All Purpose flour, 20% Whole Wheat flour and 10% whole rye flour. I pre-mix these flours and keep them in a large, air-tight glass jar to use as needed. A typical pre-mix batch would be 280g AP + 80g WW + 40g Rye flours.

Note: For this bake, I used home-milled Einkorn flour for the “Whole Wheat flour” in the Final dough.

 

Starter1

Bakers' %

Wt (g)

Flour mix

100

40

Water

50

20

Stiff starter

25

10

Total

175

70

 

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water. Add the flour blend and mix thoroughly until the flour has been completely incorporated and moistened.

  2. Ferment at 76ºF for 6 hours

 

Starter 2

Bakers' %

Wt (g)

Flour mix

100

100

Water

50

50

Stiff starter

20

20

Total

170

170

 

  1. Reserve 50 g of the ripe Starter 1 for another purpose.

  2. Dissolve 20 g of the ripe Starter 1 in the water. Add the flour blend and mix thoroughly until the flour has been completely incorporated and moistened.

  3. Ferment at room temperature for 5-6 hours.

  4. Refrigerate overnight.

  5. The next morning, let the starter come to room temperature during the autolyse.

     

 

Final dough

Wt (g)

AP flour

400

WW Flour

95

Water (85ºF)

401

Salt

12

Stiff levain

170

Total

1078

Method

  1. Mix the flour and water at low speed until they form a shaggy mass.

  2. Cover and autolyse for 90 minutes

  3. Add the salt and levain and mix thoroughly.

  4. Form the dough into a ball and place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl and cover tightly.

  5. Ferment at 76º F for 31/2 to 4 hours with a stretch and fold in the bowl at 30 minutes and 60 minutes and a stretch and fold on a lightly floured board at 90 minutes.

  6. Divide the dough as desired or bake as one larger loaf.

  7. Pre-shape as round(s) and rest, covered, for 10-30 minutes.

  8. Shape each piece as a boule or bâtard and place in a banneton. Place banneton in plastic bags.

  9. Proof at room temperature (68-70º F) for 1-2 hours. Do not over-proof. (My loaf was very puffy after 1 hour.)

  10. Cold retard overnight.

  11. The next morning, assess the degree of proofing. The loaf may be ready to bake or need additional proofing. Act accordingly.

  12. 45-60 minutes before baking, pre-heat the oven to 500º F with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  13. Score as desired.

  14. Bake at 460ºF with steam for 15 minutes, then for another 25-35 minutes in a dry oven.

  15. (Optionally) Turn off the oven, and leave the loaves on the stone, with the oven door ajar, for another 15 minutes.

  16. Transfer the bread to a cooling rack, and cool thoroughly before slicing.

I did not note that fermentation was any faster than usual, compared to other doughs with similar proportions of whole grain flour. I did note that the dough seemed less absorbent than usual, but then I have been baking breads that, most often, have at least double this proportion of whole grain flour.

On the other hand, there was amazing oven spring, and I don't think the loaf was under-proofed .... at least not by much.

The crust was crunchy, but becoming chewy. The crumb was tender-chewy. The flavor was wonderfully balanced with a prominent lactic acid mellow sour and just a touch of acetic acid tang. Lovely! We had some for dinner with Joe's Special.

For those not in the know, this is a very traditional San Francisco specialty invented by the long-closed New Joe's Restaurant, which was right on the Northeast corner of Broadway and Columbus in the heart of North Beach. It is a scramble of onions, ground beef,  spinach and eggs. It might have garlic. I seasoned it with salt and pepper only.  I added sautéd mushrooms. Some inauthentic versions add wine.  Very delicious hot or cold.

Happy baking!

David

 

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San Francisco Sourdough from Larraburu Brothers

as described in

https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1978/Documents/chem55_461.pdf

as interpreted by

David Snyder

February, 2019

Over many years, there has been much interest in reproducing the San Francisco Sourdough bread baked by Larraburu Brothers' bakery that closed in the early 1970's. The article referenced above seems the most likely accurate report available of Larraburu Brother's method. The following formula and methods have been extracted from that article, with a very few modifications as noted.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Bread flour (12% protein)

924

90

High gluten flour (14% protein)

100

10

Water

612

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1656

162

Note: I used King Arthur Flour AP flour (11.7% protein) and Breadtopia's "High Gluten Bread flour (14% protein).

 

Sponge

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High gluten flour

100

100

Water

50

50

Active starter

50

50

Total

200

200

One day before baking the bread (e.g., before going to bed the night before you want to bake)

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flour and mix thoroughly. Knead until all the flour is moistened.

  3. Place in a dry bowl and cover.

  4. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours

  5. Remove 50g of the fermented sponge and refrigerate for future use.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bread flour

924

Water

562

Salt

20

Sponge

150

Total

1656

Procedure

  1. In a large bowl or the bowl of a stand mixer, mix the water and sponge cut in pieces to soften the sponge.

  2. Mix the salt into the flour and add it to the mixing bowl.

  3. Mix the dough at slow speed to thoroughly mix the ingredients, then at medium speed to obtain medium gluten development. (A medium window pane.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 1 hour. (Note: The article does not specify the temperature for this step. I think room temperature is most likely.)

  5. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Pre-shape as balls. Cover with a cloth and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten. (Note: The 10-30 minute rest after pre-shaping is my addition, but it is “standard operating procedures” in most artisan bakeries.)

  6. Shape the pieces as boules or bâtards and place, seam-side up, in floured baskets or on a linen or parchment couche.

  7. Proof for 3-4 hours at 105ºF in a humid environment. (Note: I placed the formed loaves in bannetons and place the bannetons in food safe plastic bags and clip them shut. Then, I proofed the loaves in a Brød & Taylor proofing box.)

  8. One hour before baking, preheat the oven with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  9. Transfer the loaves to a peel and score as desired.

  10. Bake at 460ºF for 15 minutes with steam, then at 450ºF Convection bake for another 25 minutes in a dry oven. The loaves are done when thumping the bottom gives a “hollow sound,” the crust is nicely browned and the internal temperature of the loaves is 205ºF.

  11. Cool thoroughly before slicing.

Notes for future bake: Relatively dull crust suggests either over-proofing, insufficient steam or both.

The crumb was well-aerated, demonstrating adequate fermentation, but quite dense. It was essentially identical to other loaves I have baked with 50-60% hydration doughs. There is no danger of your jam falling through big holes onto your lap with this bread! The flavor was that of a French pain au levain - sweet and wheaty with only the subtlest lactic acid overtone. There was essentially no acetic acid tanginess. It's good white bread but not anything I would identify as "San Francisco Sourdough."

I could fiddle with the hydration and flour mix, I suppose, but I am not optimistic about the basic method ever hitting the target.

David

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San Francisco Sourdough from Larraburu Brothers

as described in

https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1978/Documents/chem55_461.pdf

as interpreted by

David Snyder

February, 2019

Over many years, there has been much interest in reproducing the San Francisco Sourdough bread baked by Larraburu Brothers' bakery that closed in the early 1970's. The article referenced above seems the most likely to accurately report Larraburu Brother's method. The following formula and methods have been extracted from that article, with a very few modifications as noted.

Because of the current interest on The Fresh Loaf in this, I will post this “plan” now and update it with my own results when I have actually baked bread using this method.

 

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Bread flour (12% protein)

924

90

High gluten flour (14% protein)

100

10

Water

612

60

Salt

20

2

Total

1656

162

Note: I used King Arthur Flour AP flour (11.7% protein) and Sir Lancelot flour (14% protein).

 

Sponge

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

High gluten flour

100

100

Water

50

50

Active starter

50

50

Total

200

200

One day before baking the bread (e.g., before going to bed the night before you want to bake)

  1. Dissolve the starter in the water.

  2. Add the flour and mix thoroughly. Knead until all the flour is moistened.

  3. Place in a dry bowl and cover.

  4. Ferment at 80ºF for 9-10 hours

  5. Remove 50g of the fermented sponge and refrigerate for future use.

 

Final Dough

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bread flour

924

Water

562

Salt

20

Sponge

150

Total

1656

Procedure

  1.  

    In a large bowl or the bowl of a stand mixer, mix the water and sponge cut in pieces to soften the sponge.

  2.  

    Mix the salt into the flour and add it to the mixing bowl.

  3. Mix the dough at slow speed to thoroughly mix the ingredients, then at medium speed to obtain medium gluten development. (A medium window pane.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover and let rest at room temperature for 1 hour. (Note: The article does not specify the temperature for this step. I think room temperature is most likely.)

  5. Divide the dough into two equal pieces. Pre-shape as balls. Cover with a cloth and let rest for 10-30 minutes to relax the gluten. (Note: The 10-30 minute rest after pre-shaping is my addition, but it is “standard operating procedures” in most artisan bakeries.)

  6. Shape the pieces as boules or bâtards and place, seam-side up, in floured baskets or on a linen or parchment couche.

  7. Proof for 4 hours at 105ºF in a humid environment. (Note: I place the formed loaves in bannetons and place the bannetons in food safe plastic bags and clip them shut. Then, I proof the loaves in a Brød & Taylor proofing box.)

  8. One hour before baking, preheat the oven with a baking stone and steaming apparatus in place.

  9. Transfer the loaves to a peel and score as desired.

  10. Bake at 420ºF for 40-50 minutes (per Galal. I baked at 460ºF with steam for 15 minutes, then at 450ºF convection for 25 minutes.) The oven should be steamed for the first 15 minutes of the bake. The loaves are done when thumping the bottom gives a “hollow sound,” the crust is nicely browned and the internal temperature of the loaves is 205ºF.

  11. Cool thoroughly before slicing.

 

David

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Josey Baker Whole Wheat Sourdough Bread

David Snyder

February, 2019

Browsing cookbooks at a branch library, I found Josey Baker's “Josey Baker Bread.” I have driven by and peeked into his bakery in San Francisco, but have never tasted his products. I confess I found what he charged for a slice of toast off-putting. But, folks seem to like his bread. Looking through the book, I found some recipes for 100% Whole Wheat sourdough bread. It certainly looked good in the photos, and I am still looking for my personal favorite 100% whole wheat sourdough. So, I checked out the book.

I won't comment on the book's style except to say it is an attempt to seduce some one into baking bread at home who is still a bit frightened and mystified by the whole process. It is certainly a worthy objective.

Anyway, here's my first bake of this bread.

Note: Baker does not call for a true autolyse. He combines all the ingredients in the “Final Dough” at once and, after a mix to just distribute them evenly in the dough, he lets it sit for a half hour before beginning a series of stretch and folds at half-hourly intervals. The procedure described below is what I actually did. I mixed the final dough, including the levain but not the salt, and let it rest for a period before adding the salt. This is the way I was taught at the San Francisco Baking Institute to autolyse dough when a liquid levain is used.



Total Dough

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Whole Wheat flour

508

1016

2032

100

Water

423

846

1692

83

Salt

11

21

42

2.1

Total

942

1883

3766

185.1

 

Levain

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

Whole Wheat flour

50

100

200

100

Water (cool)

60

120

240

120

Sourdough starter

6

12

24

12

Total

116

232

464

232

  1. Mix the levain ingredients well in a 4-6 cup bowl. Cover well.

  2. Ferment at room temperature (72-76ºF) for 8-12 hours.

Note: The sourdough starter I used to seed the levain is 100% hydration. It is actually 70% AP, 20% WW and 10% whole rye. For purposes of the “Total Dough” formula, I treated it as if it were entirely whole wheat.

Note: Because of a social obligation, I was not able to mix the final dough right when the levain was ripe. I refrigerated the ripe levain overnight and continued the process the next morning.



Final Dough

1 loaf

2 loaves

4 loaves

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Whole Wheat Flour

455

910

1820

Water (warm)

360

720

1440

Salt

11

21

42

Ripe levain

116

232

464

Total

942

1883

3766

Procedures

  1. Mix the flour and water and levain to a shaggy mass. Cover and let rest for 30-60 minutes. (Note: I actually autolysed for a bit over 2 hours.)

  2. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and mix it in with a spatula, spoon or your hand.

  3. Distribute the salt evenly using a pinching procedure (as described in FWSY or Tartine No. 2), alternating with stretch and folds in the bowl.

  4. Cover the bowl and ferment until increased in volume by 50% and well aerated with bubbles (about 3 hours at 80ºF). Perform stretch and folds in the bowl every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours.

  5. If making more than one loaf, divide the dough evenly into the desired number of pieces.

  6. Pre-shape piece(s) into balls. Cover and let rest for 10-30 minutes.

  7. Shape into boules or bâtards. Place in floured baskets and cover or place in food-safe plastic bags.

  8. Proof the loaves 3-4 hours (per Josey Baker). I proofed 1 hour at room temperature, then refrigerated to bake the next day.

  9. Pre-heat oven to 475ºF 45-60 minutes before baking.

  10. Bake either on a baking stone with steam for the first 15 minutes or in a Dutch oven, covered for the first 20 minutes. The total bake time should be 45-50 minutes, to an internal temperature of 205ºF.

  11. Remove to a cooling rack. Cool completely before slicing.

Note: Baker says one can cold retard this bread, either in bulk (after Step 4.) or as formed loaves. (after Step 8.) He does not say whether or not he would ever do both retardations.

The flour I used was Turkey Red wheat, freshly milled in a Mockmill 100 set at its finest setting. I did not sift out or remill any of the bran. The dough was soft and tacky but very manageable. It seemed to be developing some strength curing the stretch and folds, but was quite loose during shaping.

Lovely dough made with 100% home-milled Red Turkey wheat

Formed loaves, ready for a 12 hour nap at 40ºF

Baked loaves, cooling

The crumb

I sliced the bread after it had cooled for about 3 hours. The crust was chewy, except for the ears which were crunchy. The crumb was very moist and tender with a wheaty and mildly sour flavor. My experience has been that this type of bread improves after a day or so.

Happy baking!

David

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Same Day Pizza

David Snyder

February, 2019

 

When given a choice, I would always make pizza with dough leavened with sourdough. This could be a sourdough made with a three day lead time (See: http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/34452/pizza-bliss) or even dough made with sourdough “discard.” (See: http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/37179/pizza-made-sourdough-starter-discard) But, you know, sometimes I decide I want pizza for dinner tonight, not two or three days from now. I have found that the “Same-Day Straight Pizza Dough” formula from Ken Forkish's “Flour Water Salt Yeast” makes darn good pizza.

You do have to decide on pizza for dinner tonight by 8 or 9 am in order to get the dough made and ready for a 7 or 8 pm dinner. I usually plan for it before I go to bed the night before.

Note on quantities: These amounts of ingredients are for about 5 medium-sized pizzas. I usually scale the ingredients for 4 pizzas and actually make two pizzas and a quarter sheet pan of focaccia.

Note on flours: This formula works well with a variety of flour blends. You can use AP or Bread Flour entirely. You can substitute whole wheat for some of the white flour. I have made this dough with Bread Flour and 00. I found the crust less crispy and more chewy than I prefer. I have made it with all 00 flour. The flavor was wonderful, but 00 is milled to work best in a real pizza oven that heats to 700ºF or even hotter. In my home electric convection oven, the best I can do is 500ºF convection bake. Pizza dough made with 100% Italian 00 flour does not brown well. So, a mix of AP and 00 flours is the best I have found to date, giving me great flavor and beautiful performance. Well, a little whole wheat flour doesn't hurt a bit.

Total Dough

 

 

Ingredient

Wt (g)

Bakers' %

All purpose flour

350

35

Caputo 00 flour

650

65

Water (90-95ºF)

700

70

Instant yeast

2

0.2

Salt

20

2

Total

1722

172.2


Procedure

  1. Measure the yeast into a small bowl. Mix it with a couple tablespoons of the heated water and put it aside.

  2. In a large bowl, mix the flours. Add the rest of the heated water and mix to fully hydrate the flours. Cover the bowl and let it sit for 30 minutes to an hour. (Autolyse)

  3. Sprinkle the salt over the dough and scrape the dissolved yeast over the dough. Mix thoroughly. (I start by folding the dough over itself repeatedly with a silicon spatula, rotating the bowl 30º or so after each fold. I then squeeze the dough repeatedly with one hand, alternating squeezes with a series of stretch and folds. This both distributes the salt and yeast more evenly and develops the gluten further.)

  4. Transfer the dough to a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover the bowl. Allow the dough to ferment until almost double in volume (6-8 hours, depending on ambient temperature.) Do not under-ferment the dough. In this case, a bit over-fermented is better than under-fermented.

  5. Do a stretch and fold after one hour.
  6. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board. Divide the dough into pieces – 350g for 10inch pizzas; 700g or more for focaccia; etc.

  7. Form each piece into a tight ball. Flour lightly or oil lightly and refrigerate well-covered until 1-2 hours before use. They can be refrigerated until the next day, if desired. (Note: What I generally do is use a 1-quart Ziploc bag for each dough ball and spread a tablespoon or so of olive over the interior surfaces. Then I put a dough ball in each bag and refrigerate them, ideally for at least a couple of hours.)

  8. An hour or two before use, take the dough balls out of the refrigerator.

  9. Form each ball into a pizza shell by your method of choice. Top as desired and bake. (Note: I bake pizza on a pizza steel, preheated at 500ºF Convection for an hour. These pizzas baked in 8 minutes. Your time may vary depending on your oven.)

Pizza shaped, topped and ready to bake

Right out of the oven

Cornicione crumb

Enjoy!

David

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