The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

What do the abbreviations mean?

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

What do the abbreviations mean?

Hi, I'm new to the site. I've been baking bread for 12 years fairly successfully and solving (and not solving) problems on a trial and error basis. What a delight to find this site, so many questions answered, so many interesting ideas. Also the odd puzzle for the uninitiated - abbreviations. I worked out that SD meant sourdough, but what does S+F mean? Is there a list of the most common ones, or could someone help me out. thanks.

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

Stretch and Fold(s)

Can't think of any others off hand but feel free to run any more by me.

Welcome!

 

BF = Bread Flour

AP = All Purpose Flour

WW = Whole Wheat Flour

Mini Oven's picture
Mini Oven

Sometimes I get stumped too.    S & F can mean at least two things (maybe more)

Stretch & Fold   Which means pulling the rising dough from one side, stretching it, and then folding it over the rest of the dough.  Used to encourage gluten strength and most often consists of a set of 4 folds,  north-south-east-west or left-right-top- bottom on the flipped over dough (top side down)  Used on yeasted and sourdoughs.  A gentle way to burp the dough without flattening it completely.  Punching and kneading is for yeasted.  S & Fs for Sourdough.  Play with it and feel the difference.  Videos on it too. 

Slap & Fold is more of a kneading technique used to build gluten strength, consists basically of lifting the dough off a clean counter and slapping it down onto the counter top.  Very aggressive and therapeutic in a lot of ways.  Usually done on wetter doughs (higher hydration) but not always.   :)

There is a list or partial list somewhere.  Got a few more?  

Oh, and a Big Welcome to the site  :)  

Mini

Maverick's picture
Maverick

Some are listed here:

http://www.thefreshloaf.com/faqs/glossary

You might want to look at the comments too for others. It isn't a very long thread. There are of course many others, but this should give you a good start.

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

Thanks for all the responses. I mainly do sourdough and stretch and fold is what I do, I just didn't know that is what it's called. I only do it once, after the first proving as a mild 'knock back' - I'm guessing that this what you call 'burping' the dough. I'm due to bake today and tomorrow and can't wait to try out my better understanding of how scoring works.

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

Is it enough for the recipes you work on?

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

I think I understand the confusion. My dough has been mixed and kneaded to start with in a planetary mixer, the S+F is only used between the first and second proving. The first proving is in a bowl, then S+F to knock back and shape before going into a banetton for final proving. My basic recipe is: Very strong Flour 100%, water 60% hydrolysed 1-3hours, starter (equal weight water and stoneground organic rye flour) 20-25%, salt 2%. Initial proving 4-12hrs depending on temperature, 2nd proving 3-4hrs depending on temperature.

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

Yes, the S+F you do is more of a pre-shape. Many employ S+F for gluten development.

Nice recipe. 4-12 hours is a pretty big difference even if a fluctuation in temperature unless incorporating time in the fridge.

BTW the terminology for "hydrolysed" is Autolyse. Perhaps hydrolysed is also used but i've never heard it although it is apparent what it means. But on TFL and what is widely used is "autolyse(d)"

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

In winter the studio is colder than a fridge and quite hot in summer. It's autolyse from now on, don't know where hydrolyse came from, maybe I made it up.

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

This is based on the "Do Nothing Bread". I've done a mixed flour version at 90% hydration and my friend has done an all bread flour version at 75% hydration and both were a success. The beauty is it takes no work.

Bread Flour 100%

Water 75%

Salt 2%

Starter 1%

 

Mix the flour and salt, place to one side.

Measure out the water and add the starter, mix.

Add the dry mix to the wet mix and incorporate just enough so its all hydrated.

Bulk ferment for 24 hours giving it a S+F inside the bowl at the 12 hour mark.

After 24 hours turn the dough out on a well floured worktop and with well floured hands and scraper form a rough boule or whatever shape you want.

Final proof in banneton for 1 hour.

Bake in a preheated oven.

 

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

I'm intrigued by the simplicity of your 'do nothing recipe'. I'd like to do a mixed flour version using wholemeal because I think the long fermentation would really suit the wholemeal. What proportions do you suggest?

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

This is not my idea or recipe. I'll find you the links but off hand I think the recipe for mixed flour would be...

 

Flour 100% (60% wholegrain, 40% bread)

Water 90%

Salt 2%

Starter 1%

 

We've jumped to 90% hydration but it needs it for this proportion of wholegrain. Watch out for the dough handling. It will be sticky. Flour well and work quickly.

 

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

Thanks. Just a small clarification. I use very strong Manitoba flour as my standard, Would this fall within the definition of Bread Flour on the site?

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

Bread flour and strong flour are the same thing. High gluten content which is very good for bread. But the good thing about this recipe is that even weak gluten flour benefits from it.

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

The recipe works well. When I came to put it into the clothed banneton (I always use a cloth when the dough is very wet to avoid sticking) it was very slack and had the look and feel of dough which had over- proofed. In the oven it went very flat and I thought it would pancake, especially when after 10 minutes there was very little spring. Normally I expect to have almost all the spring by 15 minutes, but this baby was a late starter and was still going at 20 minutes. I think it must be an effect of the high hydration. The taste is superb, it's hard to get a mainly wholemeal loaf with the taste of sourdough coming through, but this has it. I'm going to try a hybrid version of this when I make my normal sourdough, mixing (less) starter into the the autolysis water then kneading as normal after autolysing.

Lechem's picture
Lechem (not verified)

and from the sound of things it tastes very good too.

This recipe needs high hydration for the "no knead" to work. But you can play around with the hydration if you think it's too high.

Next time try dropping it from 90% - 85% and see if that helps with height.

dabrownman's picture
dabrownman

10% proftein.  AP flour 10 -11.5% protein, bread flour is 11.5% to 13% protein and high gluten flour is anything over 13%......or so and every miller is a bit different .  My HG is 14% protein.  HG is usually used for bagel and pizza dough

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

Thanks. The flour I have been using is 14.9% protein.

Jon

Mini Oven's picture
Mini Oven

officially it's called degassing.  

Some of the book titles are abbreviated.  

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

So many interesting ideas on the site, so many things I'd like to try but we just don't eat that much bread. I always bake more than we need and give some away, but that doesn't solve the problem. Some while ago I had the idea of setting up a community bread oven in my village, but didn't pursue it. TFL has given me new inspiration to see if it can be done and I'll be putting an announcement in the monthly village magazine. If there are enough people interested and if we can find premises, it will happen. Has anyone out there done something similar?

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

Following on the discussion of what 'strong' and 'really strong' flour means I contacted the technical baker at the mill where I buy my flour (Marriages). He explained that there were two protein measures, the consumer measure of the protein you eat (this appears on the bag) and the baker's protein measure which doesn't appear but is the best gluten indicator.

As happens when you are talking to another enthusiastic baker (not only all the tests and lab stuff at work, but baking his own sourdough at home) the conversation meandered over all sorts of how do you do this and how do you do that. He uses the same mixer as I do, but completely differently. I've been using it for 6 minutes on the slowest setting, all ingredients in. He mixes for at least 12 minutes, the first 2 on slow just to mix, then 10-12 minutes kneading on one of the highest settings, all except the last 2 minutes without the salt in the dough. Try it he said, you will be amazed.

I tried it and I was amazed. The dough at the end was very supple and had a kind of sheen to it, the spring in the oven completely overpowered my scoring, the crumb was wonderful with that shiny, almost plastic look in the largest holes. The taste was superb. The best loaf I have ever baked. Thank you Kelvin at Marriages and thank you TFL for getting me thinking about baking again, rather than just doing it. Happy New Year.

 

 

Lazy Loafer's picture
Lazy Loafer

This is what I've been learning (and promoting) for a while now - bread dough is stronger when you actually mix it more vigorously and for a longer period of time. There are some exceptions, like spelt which has weaker gluten, but most of the professional bakers I've read advocate kneading for 20 to 30 minutes, or mixing by machine (at a higher speed than dead slow) for six to eight minutes. It's very interesting watching the different stages that the dough goes through.

I think a lot of problems people attribute to their starter, or to under- or over-proofing are actually a result of under-development.

gerhard's picture
gerhard

I agree with all you said but I think a lot of people want large and irregular holes in the crumb while developing gluten through mixing will result in smaller more consistent pores in the crumb.

Gerhard

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

The long mix still gave me lots of irregular shaped holes - some quite large. I think it is a fine balance, if mixed too long I probably would get a regular small hole 'industrial' crumb.

Lazy Loafer's picture
Lazy Loafer

I'm not sure that is true. I mix most of my breads (at least in batches more than four loaves) in an industrial mixer, and the crumb on my breads is usually quite nice and open. It makes sense, as the mixing is done before any of the fermentation or proofing, which is when the gases form the pockets in the nice stretchy gluten structure. How can mixing before fermenting result in small even holes? Here's one of my breads (sourdough), for example:

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

I agree with you.  I was just speculating what would happen if you over kneaded the dough. I assume that beyond a certain point the gluten would be weakened and unable to support larger structures.

Jean Miche's picture
Jean Miche

 I bought some very good Altamura durum wheat flour about 5 years ago and have just discovered about 3kg at the back of the cupboard. Looks ok and smells ok, but can I bake with it? If I can, do I need to make any allowances for it being old?

gerhard's picture
gerhard

If you want to use it why not bake dog biscuits if you have a dog or for you neighbour.  Even if the flour is totally fine you will not enjoy your baked products because of the nagging doubts in the back of your mind.

Gerhard