The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

Baking Powder

Debra Wink's picture
Debra Wink

Baking Powder

Yes, that's right... baking powder. I'll bet you've never given it much thought before. I know I hadn't. I mean, I know there are basically two kinds---aluminum-based (I call that "regular") and aluminum-free, right? I assumed all aluminum-based baking powders were pretty much the same, and all non-aluminum powders the same. But it turns out that I was wrong on both counts. My recent foray into biscuit-making and quest for cloud-like loftiness, inspired me to do a little informal research into the science of chemical leavening.

It all started with the Flaky Buttermilk Biscuits I baked one night to go with a big pot of homemade vegetable beef stew. I was still on the hunt for a biscuit recipe that I could be happy with, so I turned to the mini library of Cooks Illustrated hard-bound annuals housed in my living room bookcase. CI has several biscuit recipes to choose from, but since I had never laminated them before, I thought the flaky type might be worth a shot.

The only real decision to make was which baking powder to use. Being an avid baker, I keep a selection in my pantry---aluminum-based for when a strong rise really counts, and aluminum-free for when the taste would otherwise overpower. I decided on Clabber Girl, because I can't really remember what's in the glass jar. I think it is Bakewell Cream Baking Powder, which would have been a good choice, except that has a relatively short shelf life and its age is questionable. Rumford is my favorite for cakes, but not much else. So, Clabber Girl it was.

I was both thrilled and impressed with the recipe, for its high rise and many layers. But I was disappointed in the flavor, which closely resembled "biscuits-in-a-can." In other words, a very strong baking powder taste, owing of course, to the full tablespoon of baking powder called for in the recipe. I thought, no problem, I'll just use half Clabber Girl and half Rumford next time. I do that for some things, to get the best of both. But the rise was only mediocre by comparison. Rumford is aluminum-free and gives me great results in butter cakes, but it seems to fizzle too soon in some of my quickbreads, and wears itself out in the mixing bowl---especially when buttermilk is in the mix.

Left: Clabber Girl
Right: Rumford-Clabber Girl combo

At this point, I started wondering about (Original) Bakewell Cream, which is billed in The Baker's Catalog as the "secret ingredient" for biscuits. I checked around a bit on the Internet, and it does indeed receive very high marks by the New England biscuit makers in its limited distribution area. If this is really THE biscuit leavener, then really... don't I need to try it? So, I bit the bullet and placed an order.

While waiting for the Bakewell Cream to arrive, I turned my attention to Calumet. This is the one I grew up with. Once widely available, it is getting harder and harder to find around here. I searched four stores before finally scoring myself some. It gave my biscuits better flavor than the Clabber Girl, but the rise was not much better than the half-and-half Clabber Girl-Rumford combination. Perhaps that's a clue as to its formulation.

But the exciting thing was, that while on my mission to find Calumet, I stumbled upon a new baking powder. Well, it's new around here anyway, and I had never seen or heard of it before (plus, it says "New!" right on the label). I'm talking about Argo Baking Powder; have you seen it? Yep, it's the same people who make the cornstarch. What's so exciting about this baking powder, is that it has the same active ingredient as the Bakewell Cream, and unlike Rumford, it is a true double-acting, aluminum-free baking powder.

What does that mean? What makes all these baking powders different, you're wondering? Well, the basic equation is the same for all: baking soda + acid = lift. In the presence of moisture, baking soda reacts chemically with the acid, and CO2 bubbles released in the process make a batter or dough rise. Baking soda is the constant, but there are an array of acids to choose from, which can be sorted into two distinct categories---fast-acting, and slow-acting.

Fast-acting are acids that work at room temperature. They react in the mixing bowl when dry and liquid ingredients are combined, to give "bench rise." A good example is cream of tartar, which was used in the first commercial baking powders, and is still used in homemade preparations. The fast-acting acid ingredient preferred in commercial baking powders today is monocalcium phosphate (MCP).

Slow-acting acids don't react right away. They require heat to get going, and don't start reacting until the batter or dough reaches at least 120 degrees F. This is called "oven rise." Slow-acting acids include: sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP).

A baking powder is said to be single-acting if it contains only one acid. If the acid is fast-acting, then the baker will need to get the batter mixed and into the oven very quickly---before it loses its bubbles or it won't bake as high. A double-acting baking powder includes both fast- and slow-acting acids. These are designed to create carbon dioxide gas more slowly, and over a longer period of time. Some bench rise during mixing is advantageous in creating bubble structure, for things like butter cakes, pancakes and waffles. However, a strong oven rise appears to be more important for things like biscuits and cornbread.

Here is a breakdown of the baking powders I tested, and a couple others that aren't available to me locally:

If you've stuck with me this far, you probably want to know how the Bakewell Cream measured up against Argo and the rest of the powders. I have to say that Bakewell Cream's lift rivaled that of Clabber Girl, but the flavor was a whole lot better. You have to combine Bakewell Cream---which is just an acid---with your own baking soda, to create the baking powder effect. Some may find the extra measuring a nuisance, but the advantage is that, unmixed, it keeps indefinitely. Baking powders, on the other hand, have a limited shelf life of about a year.

The Argo biscuits baked up just as light as the Bakewell Cream, so I almost had to declare this one a tie. But Argo eked out the win based on flavor (and the fact that I don't have to mail-order it---not that I wouldn't for something that is truly better). The flavor thing was such a close call, though. I really thought they would taste the same, and had I not had the opportunity to have them side-by-side, I wouldn't have noticed the very slight difference. That's how close it was. So for the lightest, best-tasting biscuits, I would say, opt for something with sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) in the ingredient list. If there is a secret ingredient, that would be it.   -Debra Wink

Left: Argo biscuits, baking
Right: Bakewell Cream biscuits, cooling


trailrunner's picture

as Debra said the only application is with very crsip cookies. You can't make certain biscotti without it. They cook long enough to dissipate the ammonia taste. The resulting crispness is second to none. We have perfected the Biscotti di Regina using the ammonium and they are exactly like the ones that Angelo Brocato's bakery makes in New Orleans. We tried for years to duplicate and finally succeeded when we switched to our own rendered lard ( strutto) and the ammonium. I am on the lookout for some of the baking powders mentioned above. A wonderful discussion Debra !  c

Antilope's picture

A 60-oz (3.75-Lb - 1.7-kg) container is $ 5.78.

The Yakima Kid's picture
The Yakima Kid

Food shopping is an adventure for our household since my husband is allergic to maize. No cornstarch, high fructose corn syrup, or modified food starch allowed.

The non-GMO movement has been a godsend for us as we can now find regular catsup and sauces without corn starch or syrup after an absence of several years. For many years I did most of my shopping for condiments and baking/breading mixes at Pesach even though we aren't Jewish.

I've found a very few baking powders that don't contain cornstarch; and all are single acting.

Gefen and Lieber Kosher for Passover, Bakewell Cream starch free baking powder (regular Bakewell Cream is also available starch free for combining with soda or other alkaline ingredients), and Hain Featherlight are the only ones I've found without corn starch.

I order the Bakewell Cream products from New England Cupboard online. I can find Kosher for Passover Gefen at a couple of Bay Area groceries that supply kosher foods, and I can order Lieber's from or Hain can be found at some, but not all, health food stores.

The Science Company sells 1/2 pound of food grade ammonium carbonate for $9.95, which is a lot cheaper than Amazon, King Arthur, or Kitchen Krafts.

Baker's ammonia - once called hartshorn- has a couple of drawbacks. It can react with simple sugars during baking,  and then these compounds can react with asparagine (found in whole grains and nuts) to form a carcinogen. It also smells when in use. The original name came from the original process to obtain it which involved red deer antlers, and later the hooves of domestic ruminants.

Another early baking powder is a native plant found in parts of North America, known as "Quail Bush." I have used it experimentally, but I wouldn't recommend it unless you're curious (or have been married to an ethnobotanist.)

Hardwood ashes soaked for bicarbonate were once combined with soured milk as a leaven as well.


Donkey_hot's picture

Debra, Thank you for posting your research, I've been  using Clabber Girl  and this very specific residual taste did bother me quite a bit, even though I used very little.  Just bought Argo and can't wait to taste the difference! :)


RaptorRich's picture

I know it's an old thread, but today I learned. Thank you for the great explanation of baking powder. 

I found this as as I was searching for answers to dismal crowns on my muffins. I have some Bobs Red Mill that was hidden under other stuf. So I'll try that today, instead of Clabber Girl. Also ordered some Bakewell now that I know what it is!! The forever shelf life combined with good tasting breads may make that my regular. 

Debra Wink's picture
Debra Wink

If you're not getting your muffins to crown with Clabber Girl, Bob's probably won't do it for you either, because they both have about the same leavening power. But do try Bob's for the taste. For better crowning, here are some things to try:

If the batter is thin enough to pour, the formula may have too much liquid for the flour you're using. You want it thick enough to spoon with a disher. Try reducing the liquid, or increase the flour a little.

If the consistency seems right, the oven temperature may be too low.Try raising the temp 25 degrees and see if they'll pop for you.

If the batter is thick enough, the temp seems right to you (good color on the outside when they're just done on the inside), and your baking powder is fresh and potent, it could be that it needs to be increased.

Best baking to you,

RaptorRich's picture

thanks. I'll have to do some testing. I may have to do something drastic like actually follow a recipe!!!

PlainPopcorn's picture

contains Aluminium potassium sulfate/Potassium alum/E522 next to the bicarb. They call it double acting (that's why I bought it) but it's got only 1 acid. I bought it in a 454 gram canister for only a small amount of money (like 1 euro 40 or something) at the asian supermarket because here in the netherlands we usually only get one kind of baking powder (bicarb with Disodium diphosphate/SAPP).

This is what it looks like

I was curious if anyone has any experience with this stuff (or a bp with the same ingredients). I googled but the internet hasn't thrown me any information on how to use and how much.

Back of the canister says; the ratio of flour and baking powder is freely according to various conditions.

MaryanneL's picture

I just read your extremely thorough comparison of baking powders including Bakewell Cream. I have read other's explanations of how to substitute Bakewell by adding baking soda. My question is, do I still use the amount of baking soda called for in the recipe and add the substituted baking soda and Bakewell Cream for the baking powder? Or, does the Bakewell Cream+Baking Soda cover both ingredients, so no more baking soda or baking powder are needed? Thanks for your advice. As a New Englander and Maine vacationer,I want to use my Bakewell in more than biscuits. Thanks!

MaryanneL's picture

I just read your extremely thorough comparison of baking powders including Bakewell Cream. I have read other's explanations of how to substitute Bakewell by adding baking soda. My question is, do I still use the amount of baking soda called for in the recipe and add the substituted baking soda and Bakewell Cream for the baking powder? Or, does the Bakewell Cream+Baking Soda cover both ingredients, so no more baking soda or baking powder are needed? Thanks for your advice. As a New Englander and Maine vacationer,I want to use my Bakewell in more than biscuits. Thanks!

Debra Wink's picture
Debra Wink

The answer is yes --- use the amount of soda called for, plus the amount of soda and Bakewell Cream needed to stand in for the baking powder. If you use it frequently, you can simplify things by mixing a small quantity of baking powder to have at the ready. That way you can just measure everything per the recipe you're following. It will keep for a bit. Just store in an air-tight container with a good seal.

Thanks, and best baking to you,

denim's picture

This is a great thread!  I just joined due to this thread, and because of my question, below.  I found this thread pointed at by Casual Kitchen when I went to buy more Davis' to replace my 12 oz can, which I just finished this week.  I think I might try selling the tin on eBay. :-D

Anyway, having now read this whole thread, it occurred to me that, given I like baking pretzels and therefore have a container of NaOH (lye), I wonder what kind of acid I might combine with it to make a REALLY POWERFUL baking powder.  Any suggestions?  Should I give this idea up, given that I probably don't want exploding baked goods?

Debra Wink's picture
Debra Wink

There's no carbon, or -carbonate in lye to produce carbon dioxide. No carbon dioxide, no lift. But you probably found that out by now. :)


denim's picture

I suppose that could be added by the acid.  No, haven't tried it yet.