The Fresh Loaf

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French flours

huda's picture

French flours


I recently ordered 2 french flours from a local supplier , I wanted bread flour and pastry flour (as they are difficult to find in my country)


Before I order, I read this article , where it is stated that T65 is equivalent to american bread flour and should've higher protein(gluten) content of 12.0% – 13.5%, and t45 is equivalent to american cake flour and have protein content of 8.50%-9.50%. I followed it and decided to order the following flours:

Moul-Bie Tradition T65 (25kg)

Moul-Bie Flour T45 Violette(25kg)


 Flours were delivered today, and I was surprised to see these numbers on Nutrition Label :

Moul-Bie Tradition T65 , Protein : 10.3% (on the bag it is written as French Bread Flour)

Moul-Bie Flour T45 Violette : 11 %(described as for pastry and cakes)


I am extremely disappointed, but I would like to get your opinions , did any of you try them, could (am very desperate) these numbers have different meaning ? I don't know what shall I do... :(


DanAyo's picture

Hi Huda! A few of us are working to perfect baguettes. General consensus is that T65 french flour is best. All of us have remarked that the Le Moulin d'Auguste T65 is a weak flour that does absorb a lot of water. It is excellent for baguettes but as American bakers we find the flour handles very different from flours in the USA.

Here are the specs for our particular French Flours.

A fellow baker, “ kendalM” is more familiar with french flour.

idaveindy's picture

See this page

for an explanation of the French T numbering system.

T is the ash %, T45 is .45% ash, T55 is .55% ash, etc., on a dry weight basis.  (This contrasts with the US standard of 14% moisture in the denominator.  The US measurement of a sample would then read lower than the French measurement of ash in the same flour.)

In essence the T number has nothing to do with protein/gluten or granule/particle size. Though a smaller particle size is usually an accompanying consequnce of removing more ash/bran, it is not part of the spec.

So.... you could find T55 low protein pastry flour, T55 bread flour, and T55 high gluten flour.

The Italians use 00, 0, 1 etc., for ash content, but again, protein is not part of that spec. Looking at Caputo's 00 flour, you can find a wide range of protein percentage all among their various 00 flour.

Click on the links to the individual flour pages to see the wide range of protein percent.

Here's the/a  Moul Bie web site:

Flour page, in French:

There are 7 (counting organic/"bio") different T65 flours on that page and the 2nd page.  Update: See following comment for how to find protein %.

idaveindy's picture

I checked your link:

The author of that post is representing the Swiss Bake company, and giving the protein specifications only for his company's flour.

He also goes into detail of what the T number means. But I can understand how one could easily assume that protein percentages also correspond.

huda's picture

but I found the same on other websites....

I thought of replacing the flours to T45 Gruau Rouge - protein 12.9% ... described as 

• A strong flour for multiple purposes : croissant, brioche, soft breads

• Flour extracted from the heart of the wheat

I thought of replacing the flours to T55 OR  - protein 9.8% ... described as 

T55 wheat flour for standard French bread. Suitable for all artisan bakery uses and production methods.

The thing is, the description given to the flours that I got Traditional T65, and T45 Violette are exactly what I wanted , general bread flour(for both bread loaves and viennoiserie) and pastry flour ,,, their protein content doesn't ... they are 25kgs so I cannot just "sample" ...

idaveindy's picture

At this point, I would suggest contacting Moul Bie (via the web site I linked to) and asking whether your Tradition T65 flour is limited to baguettes, or if you can reasonably make your intended product with it.

Btw, this is Moul Bie's T65 flour with 12.8% protein:

huda's picture

Unfortunately that one isn't available here..

I tried to ask the supplier, and UK/US emails that I found in instagram with no clear answer, 

however, one of them stated :"Actually our flours are not range by rates, but more likely by purposes.

Indeed, you can have a certain content of protein or gluten, but there are different kinds of  protein and glutens.

It mainly depends on the varieties of cereals we grow and the blend we make." 


Now am just considering replacing Traditional T65 with T45 Gruau Rouge, and whenever i will make bread I will adjust with local whole wheat flour as needed, as for T45 Violette, I will either keep it or replace with T55 OR (protein 9.9%) or patisserie blanche ....


what do you think ?


idaveindy's picture

You haven't said whaf kind of bread you want to make.  That is the crux, as to whether 10.3% protein T65 will work acceptably.  That is the question you have not asked anyone yet.

It's not all about protein %.  There is more to dough strength than just protein %.

and just because Tradition T65 has 10.3% does not mean it will work well for pastries.

idaveindy's picture

Here's where the protein % for each Moul Bie flour is.  Go to this page first:

Then click on the flour that you want to look at.

Then Click the link that says:
Télécharger la fiche technique de ce produit

 I found one T65 that had 12-something % protein, but I did not check all.

Mini Oven's picture
Mini Oven

is not the gluten %.  Gluten is protein but there are more proteins than just gluten.  The more whole the flour the higher the protein content so compare the roughage or fiber content as well.   And that also varies with type of grain.  Fun eh?  Knew you'd like it.  :)

huda's picture

well am not that scientific , but generally the protein content % dictated the strength of the flour , how American flours are categorized ... ( or more accurate.. how many understand it)

DanAyo's picture

Huda, Mini brings up a very viable point. Think about semolina. It has very high protein but the dough is super slack.

Three main things to consider with protein in flour.

  1. Amount of Gliadin vs Glutenin. 
  2. Quality of Gliadin and Glutenin. 
  3. Not all (but most) of the protein In flour contributes to gluten development.

But you are correct, the percentage of protein is the common indicator for dough strength.

Baking Soul's picture
Baking Soul


I have worked with Moul Bie Tradition T65, it's one of the worst flour i ever worked with. Ironic i still use it because it's the best hing available in the market so far. But it's full of additives and bread improves, except Tradition T65 because it's protected by french law.

Now T65 is yes can be equivalent to american bread flour except it's made of soft wheat no hard wheat. But Not Tradition T65.

The quality and content of protein in the T65 is different from a mill to another, i worked with 11% protein that was great and 13% protein that was bad.

Basically Tradition T65 means there are regulations on the additives. 2  broad bean flour,5% soya flour and 3% malted wheat flour.

my advice to you if you still using Moul Bie for bread is to always autolyse and don't try to go above 75% hydration.

What kind of bread and pastry you working on ?