Corn sugar = dextrose = glucose(/syrup) = glucose monohydrate
I haven't seen this topic in a search, so I thought I'd throw it out.
If anyone has a recipe that calls for "corn sugar", you can get it at beer-making supply stores. It is called "corn sugar" or "dextrose." I've seen it in 1 pound, 3 pound, and 50 pound bags.
It is usually hydrated. That does not mean it is wet, it still looks and feels dry. But it means there is one water molecule attached to each glucose molecule (technical name "glucose monohydrate"). And because of that, it dissolves very quickly, even in cold water.
There is a thing called "anhydrous glucose" which is glucose molecules only, no H2O attached. But it is expensive, and usually not needed for home baking/brewing operations.
If you need "glucose syrup" for a recipe, you can make it out of corn sugar (aka dextrose, aka glucose monohydrate) just by mixing the dextrose in a little water (more dextrose than water, by volume) and heating. I do not know the ratio of dextrose to water in order to make "standard" glucose syrup.
You may not want to use "corn syrup" as a direct replacement for "glucose syrup" because of the added salt, the added vanilla flavor, and the fact that American grocery-store corn syrup (eg. Karo) has a lot of naturally occuring fructose and other longer chains of "maltodextrins".
Maltodextrins are one-dimensional chains of "N" number of glucose molecules, all hooked up in various lengths of chains, and they would need to be broken down, by some enzyme, before they can behave as singular and separate glucose molecules, whereas in pure glucose syrup, and dry dextrose, the glucose molecules are already individual molecules.
Maltodextrin dissolves very slowly in cool water, faster in warm water, and tends to clump (almost like corn starch) in hot water.
Bottom line: American corn syrup (Karo, etc.) is NOT glucose syrup. Probably not close enough for direct substitution.
Hence, maltodextrins can add _thickening_ properties, but not as much sweetness (or fermentability) as singular glucose molecules.
If I recall correctly, the "dextrose equivalent" of Karo light corn syrup is 40%, whereas corn sugar, dextrose, and glucose syrup would be 100%.
"Corn starch" (called "corn flour" in the UK) is a TWO-dimensional "fabric" (not the best word, but close enough) of glucose molecules, whereas maltodextrins are a ONE-dimensional "string" or chain, and glucose is ZERO-dimensional, already totally individualized/broken down. Corn starch is a better thickener than maltodextrin, but an even poorer/slower sweetener, and ferment feeder than maltodextrins and dextrose, because there are more bonds (inter molecule "links") to break down via enzyme activity.
"Malt syrup", sometimes called golden syrup, consists of maltose molecules and water. Maltose molecules consist of exactly two glucose molecules. There is another name, used in UK/AUS that escapes me at the moment.
Malt Syrup can be found in most Korean grocery stores in the U.S., labeled RICE SYRUP, or Brown Rice Syrup, it is light brown in color. If your local Asian grocery store caters to Koreans, they will have this.
"Malt sugar", can be found in beer brewing supply stores, labeled "Dry Malt Extract" abbreviated DME. This is a fine powder. Usually light brown. Very sweet. Tastes like malt, as in malted milk balls, or malted milk. Absorbs moisture very quickly from the atmosphere, so keep it in tightly sealed container.
For us sourdough bakers, our yeast can eat glucose and maltose.
Hence, if you want to quick-boost your starter or levain, you could theoretically add some dextrose and/or malt sugar/DME. And I have done that. Though I make no guarantees, as that could also quick-feed any foreign or contaminating bacteria. Try at your own risk.
I have also added dextrose and malt sugar/DME (on different occasions, not both together) directly to my final dough. That seems to reduce ferment/rise time. I could taste the DME in the final bread. Again, no guarantees, try it at your own risk.
disclaimer: I am not a chemist, nor a brewer, nor a long time sourdough baker. So I may have over-simplified, or been inexact in the above. I invite those who know better to please offer corrections.