The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

Hello from Australia

jcsrising's picture

Hello from Australia

This is a exciting time for me because there is so much to learn about making bread.

I am learning about The Fresh Loaf after I found a book by Richard Bertinet.

The handbook is helping as well. I have made a few loaves and pizzas, and just starting my first sourdough experiments. My plan is to have some lessons as soon as I can.

Is your site able to direct me to other home bakers in Melbourne, because there are so many variables I am looking for some experience. Is there a book works well in Australia ie brands and grams?

The pictures of your group baking look great.

Thankyou for the site


RobynNZ's picture


You could check your library for the Bourke St Bakery Book

You might also like to check out the contributions of some very talented Australian bakers here on TFL:    Pip's Blog  and Shiao-Pings blog  Yozzause's blog Rossnroller's blog  None of them live in Melbourne, but reading through their blogs starting from their early posts you will be able to learn a great deal.

There is an Australian based website Sourdough Companion too, you might be able to make contact with someone in Melbourne through it.

YouTube is an amazing resource too. Checkout the 'video' link in the black banner at the top of the page.

And come back and ask questions when you need help. Lots of helpful people from all over the world  here.

Have fun learning!

Cheers, Robyn

jcsrising's picture

Hi Robyn

I see that you are online.

Thankyou for the welcome. There is clearly so much information its a bit overwhelming.

For someone just starting, I will have to pace myself because of the need to learn by making bread, along with

finding the links between the variations I make and the baked outcomes.

At the moment I feel like a pioneer discovering bread.

When I know what to ask I will come forward. Thanks again

Antilope's picture

Australian Wheat Flour Protein / Gluten Content

I am attempting to put together a list of Australian retail wheat flour with its protein/gluten percentages. I have assembled similar lists for U.S. / Canadian and U.K. flour. The data for this incomplete list is from Australian supermarket websites and the protein / gluten data comes from nutritional labels posted on the supermarket websites (usually given as protein grams per 100 grams of flour):
Wheat Flour Protein:
In Australian wheat flour protein levels range from 9.5% in white plain flour to as high a 13% in wholemeal plain flour.

-Protein percentage indicates the amount of gluten available in the a given flour. Gluten is the substance which develops when the flour protein, which occurs naturally in wheat flour, is combined with liquid and kneaded.
-Because gluten is able to stretch elastically, it is desirable to have a higher gluten flour (protein percentages around 11% to 13%) for yeast-raised products, which have doughs that are stretched extensively; like pizza, most yeast breads, and bagels.
-For cakes, pie crusts, cookies/sweet biscuits, scones, pancakes, waffles, quick breads and pastry to be short and crumbly or tender, a lower protein flour (protein percentages around 8% to 10%) is better. Also, in higher gluten flours, the gluten can overpower the chemical leaveners, such as baking powder or bicarbonate of soda, causing the final baked goods to not rise as high.
The main Australian wheat varieties (according to the AWB website) are:

Australian Prime Hard Wheat:
Grown west of Brisbane in areas near the Queensland - New South Wales border. Containing protein levels from 13 to 14 percent. Made up of white hard-grained wheat varieties. Used to make Chinese style yellow alkaline noodles and Japanese Ramen noodles. Also used for high protein, high volume breads. Is also blended with lower protein wheat to produce flour suitable for a wide range of baked products and noodles.
Australian Hard Wheat:
Grown inland, in a 200 km wide area from west of Brisbane to just north of Melbourne and on westward to north of Adelaide with another growing area east of Perth. Made up of hard grained white wheat varieties. Its protein level is 11.5 percent. Used in European style pan and hearth breads, Middle Eastern flat breads. Also used in Chinese steamed products such as Mantou and Pao, as well as Chinese style yellow alkaline noodles.
Australian Premium White Wheat:
Grown inland, in a 200 km wide area from west of Brisbane to just north of Melbourne and on westward to north of Adelaide with another growing area east of Perth. made up of hard grained white wheat varieties. Has a protein level of 10 percent. Used in a variety of Asian noodles, including Hokkien, instant and fresh noodles. Also usded in Middle Eastern and Indian style breads and Chinese steamed bread.
Australian Standard White Wheat:
Grown inland, in a 200 km wide area from west of Brisbane to just north of Melbourne and on westward to north of Adelaide with another growing area east of Perth. This is a medium to low protein white wheat used for milling or blending purposes. Used in Middle Eastern, Indian and Iranian style flat breads, European style breads and rolls, and Chinese steamed bread.
Australian Soft Wheat:
A blend of white, soft-grained club wheat varieties, with a protein level of 9.5 percent. Flour from this wheat variety is used for sweet biscuits, cookies, pastries, cakes, steamed buns and snack foods.
Australian Durum Wheat:
Grown inland, in a 200 km wide area from west of Brisbane to just west of Sydney, with another growing area near Adelaide. Australian No.1 Durum consists of wheat varieties with vitreous, amber coloured kernels with a minimum protein level of 13 percent. Used in wet and dry pasta products and couscous..

Australian Wheat Flour - Protein percentage in name brands
-White Plain Flour
Allied Mills Plain Flour 9.5%
Anchor Lighthouse Plain Cake Biscuit & Pastry Flour 8.7%
Anchor Lighthouse Pasta & Noodle Flour 9.6%
Anchor Lighthouse Bread & Pizza Flour 11.5%
Coles White Plain Flour 10.1%
Coles Organic Plain Flour 10.8%
Edmonds Standard Grade Flour 10.5%
Edmonds High Grade Flour 11.0%
FBW Plain Flour 10.1%
Healthy Baker Plain Flour 9.7%
Macro Organic Plain Flour 11.4%
Millers Foods Plain Flour 9.0%
Millers Foods Organic White Flour 9.0%
Millers Foods Baker's Bread Flour 11.0%
Wallaby Bakers Plain Flour 11.9%
White Wings Plain Flour 10.1%
White Wings Organic Plain Flour 10.8%
Woolworth's Homebrand Plain Flour 10.9%
-Wholemeal Plain Flour
Coles Wholemeal Plain Flour 11.2%
Edmonds Wholemeal Flour 11.8%
Four Leaf Wholemeal Flour 13.0%
Four Leaf Bran Reduced Wholewheat Flour 13.0%
Four Leaf 100% Superfine Wholemeal Flour 13.0%
White Wings Wholemeal Plain Flour 10.8%
Woolworth's Homebrand Wholemeal Plain Flour 11.2%
-White Self Raising Flour--Wheat Flour, Raising Agents (salt is not
added to Australian self raising flour)
Anchor Lighthouse Self Raising Biscuit Flour 8.3%
Coles White Self Raising Flour 9.8%
Coles Organic Self Raising Flour 9.8%
Edmonds Self Raising Flour 11.1%
Healthy Baker Self Raising Flour 9.5%
Macro Organic Self Raising Flour 9.8%
Millers Foods Self Raising Flour 9.62%
White Wings Cake Grade Self Raising Flour 10.4%
White Wings Self Raising Flour 10.0%
White Wings Organic Self Raising 9.8%
Woolworth's Homebrand Self Raising Flour 10.4%
-Wholemeal Self Raising Flour--Wheat Flour, Raising Agents (salt is
not added to Australian self raising flour)
Coles Wholemeal Self Raising Flour 11.3%
Four Leaf Wholemeal Self Raising Flour 13.0%
White Wings Wholemeal Self Raising Flour 10.5%
'00' Flour
Alpine Special White '00' Flour 11.5%
Anchor Lighthouse Pasta & Noodle Tipo '00' Flour 12.0%
La Molisana Type '00' Flour 11.5%
Laucke Type '00' Special White 10.5%
- Instant Flour
White Wings Gravy Flour 10.5%
Spelt Flour
Ceres Organics Wholemeal Spelt Flour 13.3%
Four Leaf Spelt Flour 14.3%

Millers Foods Pastry Flour 10.0%

-VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN (used for blending with wholemeal or white plain flour to raise flour protein/gluten percentage. About 1 tablespoon per cup of flour is the usual amount required)

Manildra millers Australian Vital Wheat Gluten Flour 71%

Antilope's picture

Cooking and Baking Terms

Australian / UK = U.S. / Canada

Afters = Dessert
Aubergine = Eggplant
Bacon = Canadian bacon or ham
Back bacon = Canadian bacon
Baking beans = Pie weights (for baking empty pie shells).
Baking paper = Parchment paper
Baking tray = Cookie sheet
Bangers = Sausages
Baps, A "bap" = A whole hamburger bun (both top and bottom).
Barbecue = Grill
Beef suet = Fat from around beef kidney
Beetroot = Beets
bi-carb soda = baking soda
Bicarbonate of soda = Baking soda
Biscuit cutter = Cookie cutter
Biscuits = Cookies
Bitter = Beer
Bilberry = Blueberry
Biscuit mixture = Cookie dough
Black cherries = Bing cherries
Black treacle = Molasses
Boiled sweets = Hard candy
bottling = canning
bread rolls = buns
Brew = Cup of tea
Broad Beans = Fava beans
Brown sauce = Steak sauce
Bun = Cupcake
Bun Tin = Cupcake pan
cake cooler = wire rack
Cake tin = Cake pan (usually deeper than a Sandwich Tin).
Candy floss = Cotton candy
Capsicum = Bell peppers
Card loaf cases = Paper/Cardboard loaf pans
Carolina rice = Short grain rice
casserole dinner (or tea) = potluck
Castor sugar = Superfine granulated sugar, or sugar blended twice
Chicken cube, beef cube = Bouillon cube
Chicory = Belgian endive
Chipolata sausages = Fresh ground pork sausages (link breakfast
chips = French fries
chocolate drops = chocolate chips
Chocolate strands, Chocolate vermicelli = Chocolate sprinkles
Cling film = Plastic wrap
Collops = Meatballs
Cooking thermometer = Candy thermometer
Coriander leaves = Cilantro (also Chinese Parsley).
copha = white vegetable shortening (U.S. Crisco)
Coriander seeds = Coriander (spice).
Cornflour = Cornstarch
Cos lettuce = Romaine lettuce
Courgette = Zucchini
crisps = potato chips
Crumpet = Similar to an English muffin
Crystallised fruits = Candied fruits
Cup = Australian, Ireland, NZ, UK, 250ml = Cup = U.S./Canada  liquid measure 240ml - dry measure 227ml
cuppa = cup of tea
Curly endive = Chicory
dark cooking chocolate = semi-sweet chocolate
Demerara sugar = Light brown sugar
desiree potatoes = red potatoes
Dessicated coconut = Flaked coconut
Digestive biscuits = Wheat flour cookie, similar to a Graham cracker
Double cream = Heavy cream or whipping cream
English round lettuce = Bibb lettuce
Essence = Extract
Extra-Fine Plain Flour = Cake Flour
Extra-Strong Flour = High-gluten Flour
fairy bread = bread and butter with coloured sprinkles
Fairy cake = Cupcake (Australian English: patty cake or cup cake).
fairy floss = cotton candy
fan-forced (baking) = convection oven baking
Fast-action dried yeast = Instant dried yeast
Fine Plain Flour = Pastry Flour
Fish Fingers = fish sticks
Fish slice (kitchen utensil) = Spatula or pancake turner
fizzy drink = carbonated drinks
Forcemeat = Stuffing mixture
Free-range eggs = Eggs from uncaged, free roaming chickens
French beans = Green beans
Gammon = Ham
Ginger nut = Ginger snap
Girdle = Griddle
Glace fruit = Candied fruit
glad bake = parchment paper
glad wrap = saran wrap or plastic wrap
Gobstopper = jawbreaker
Golden caster sugar = unrefined caster sugar (slightly golden hue
due to a bit of molasses used in processing).
Golden syrup = Light Karo Syrup (imperfect substitute for the sugar
cane based golden syrup ).
Greaseproof paper = Waxed paper, Wax paper
Grill = Broiler
Ground nut = Peanut
Ground nut oil = Peanut oil
Haricot beans = Navy beans
hundred and thousands = sprinkles
ice lolly = popsicle
icing = icing, frosting
Icing sugar or 10 k sugar = Confectioners' sugar or powdered sugar
Italian 00 flour = pasta flour
Jam = Jelly
Jelly = Jell-O, gelatin
jelly crystals = flavoured gelatin
jacket potato = baked potato
joint (of meat) = large cut of meat with bone
kippers = smoked herring
kitchen paper = paper towel
Knob of butter = Pat of butter
Knocking back dough = punching down dough
Lean bacon = Canadian bacon
Liver sausage = Liverwurst
Loaf tin = Loaf pan
Lyle's Golden Syrup = Light Karo Syrup (imperfect substitute for the
sugar cane based golden syrup ).
maltesers = chocolate covered malt balls
Mangetout = snow/sugar peas
Marie biscuits = vanilla wafers (any plain sweet biscuit/cookie)
Marrow = Large zucchini
mash = mashed potatoes
Measuring jug = Measuring cup
mince (meat, beef, chicken, lamb, pork, etc) = ground meat, usually
Minced meat = Ground meat
mixed peel = candied peel
Mixed seeds = Pumpkin, sunflower, golden linseed [flaxseed] & sesame
seed mix
Mixed spice = Pumpkin pie spice
Morello cherries = sour cherries
Muffin tray = Muffin pan
Muscovado sugar = Raw, unrefined sugar
Muesli = Granola
Non-stick tins = Non-stick pans
offal = variety meats (liver, heart, kidney)
Orange pepper = Bell pepper
Oven gloves = Oven mits
oven slide = cookie sheet
Paper cupcake cases = Paper cupcake muffin liners
Paper muffin cases = Paper cupcake or muffin liners
Pastry case = Pie shell
Patna rice = Long grain rice
patty cake = cup cake
Pawpaw = Papaya
Pig’s trotter = Pig’s foot
pips = seeds
Plain flour = All-purpose flour
Polony = Bologna sausage
Porridge = Oatmeal, cooked
Porridge oats = Rolled oats
Prawns = Shrimp
Pudding cloth = Cheesecloth
Rapeseed oil = Canola oil
Rasher of Bacon, Rashers = Slices of Canadian bacon or ham
Rasher = Slice
Red pepper = Bell pepper
rice bubbles = rice crispies (breakfast cereal)
ring tin = tube pan
rocket = arugula
rockmelon = cantaloupe
Sachet = Packet (like a packet of yeast or sugar).
saladas = saltine crackers
Sandwich tin = Layer cake pan (usually more shallow than a cake
Scone = Baking powder biscuit, sweet or savory
Self-raising flour = Self-rising flour (US/Canadian SR flour
contains salt but UK/Australian/Irish/NZ SR flour contains no salt).
sebago potatoes = russet potatoes
Semolina = Cream of wheat
sherbert = powdered candy
Sieve = Sift
Sieve = Strainer
Single cream = Light cream, half and half
slice (baking) = bar cookie
silverbeet = Swiss chard
Soft brown sugar = Brown sugar
sponge finger = lady finger
Springclip tin = Springform pan
Spring onions = Green onions
Soured cream = Sour cream
SR Flour = Self Raising Flour
stock cubes = boullion Cubes
Stoned = Seeded
Streaky bacon = regular American bacon, sliced
Strong flour = Bread flour
Sultanas = seedless white raisins, golden raisins
Swede = Rutabaga, turnip
Sweetcorn = Corn
Sweet pepper = Pimiento
Sweets = Candy
Swiss roll = Jelly roll
Tablespoon, Australian NZ 20ml (4 tsp) = US/Canada Tablespoon 15ml
(3 tsp)
Thickened cream 35–36.5% milkfat, with added gelatine = substitute
heavy whipping cream, which has 35% milkfat
Tin = Can
Tinned = Canned
Treacle = Molasses
Toffee = Taffy
tomato puree = tomato paste
tomato sauce = tomato ketchup
Traybake tin = 9 x 12 inch baking pan
vanilla essence = vanilla extract
Vegetable fat = Crisco
Vegetable marrow = Yellow squash
vermicelli, chocolate = sprinkles, chocolate
Water biscuits = Crackers, matzos
white sugar = white granulated sugar
Wholemeal flour = Whole wheat flour
Wooden cocktail stick = Cocktail Pick‎ / Cocktail tooth picks
Yellow pepper = Bell pepper
Oven Temperatures
Gas Mark 1 = 275F = 140C
Gas Mark 2 = 300F = 150C
Gas Mark 3 = 325F = 170C
Gas Mark 4 = 355F = 180C
Gas Mark 5 = 375F = 190C
Gas Mark 6 = 400F = 200C
Gas Mark 7 = 425F = 220C
Gas Mark 8 = 455F = 230C