Lean crusty loaves can be stored on the counter, cut side down. Really, this works just fine, though you can also store them in a paper bag and cover the cut side with foil -- this will stave off drying out a little longer. Lean yeasted loaves will keep for a day, maybe two, but not much longer. Sourdoughs, on the other hand, will keep for 4-5 days.
Loaves with sweeteners and / or fats should be stored in a plastic bag or an airtight container at room temperature. They'll keep for 3-4 days before they begin to stale.
DON’T store bread in the refrigerator. While this will prevent the bread from going moldy, unfortunately, bread goes stale very quickly at temperatures in the 30s and 40s.
Bread freezes very well. Let it cool to room temperature, and then wrap it in foil or place it in a plastic bag. You can either let it thaw out on its own (which takes half a day or so), or wrap it in foil and bake it at 350 degrees for about 45 minutes.