The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

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 My wife and I like porridge for breakfast.  The porridge always includes oats, nuts, and fruit but otherwise it is not really constrained, and I am always looking for ideas. Recently I picked-up  Bob’s Red Mill 10-grain Breakfast cereal, but it was not really a winner – we did not really like the texture, so I ground it into flour for my Pain de Campania series.

It made a surprisingly good addition to my Pain de Campania.  It was worth thinking deeply about.

The “10-grain flour” got some added Kamut, Spelt, and hard winter wheat flour (sifted through a 40# sieve) , and there was a series of loaves of various proportions.

So, a friend was coming back from Europe, and we invited her over for an April Fool “Holy Bread” Luncheon. We served Holey bagels (strong bread flour), Kosher Challah (weak bread flour), and Pain de Campania decorated with a cross.

This has really become our favorite bread. My grain mix is about 1 part “10-grain flour” 1 part Kamut flour, 1 part Spelt flour, 1 part Rye flour, 1 part Sprouted Wheat flour, and 2 parts sifted Winter Wheat flour. Altogether, that mix is my PdC flour.  Those grains all came into the house last fall, and we had a warm, wet winter, so I expect they have absorbed some moisture, which will affect hydration. I am also using commercial strong bread flour, from a new sack, so it will be very dry.

My sourdough starter is fed about every other day, and the morning the day before baking, about 100 grams of starter gets fed with 150 grams PdC grain mix and 150 grams water and is left on the counter (65F). By early evening it is 400 grams of a nice bubbly leaven.  A month or so ago, I accidently dumped all my starter into a batch of bread. It took a few days to build a new starter.  This is that new starter, and not some heritage starter I got from – some mythical grandmother.  However, in the last couple of weeks, it seems to have picked up additional strains of yeast that does produce a lighter crumb – I do not think that sourdough starters are ever finished, they evolve with what they are fed and the environment.

In the early evening before the day of the bake, I put 400 grams of water in a big bowl, add the 400 gm of leaven, and mix with a whisk. I add 200 grams of the PdC flour, cover and let sit on the counter for 3 or 4 hours. About 9 pm I add 50 grams of olive oil, 30 grams of molasses, 12 grams of salt, and stir in 400 grams of strong bread flour, and stir/knead into a coarse dough. I put a lid on it, and let it sit on the counter over-night.

First thing in the morning, the dough gets stretched, and rolled up into a ball, several times in a couple of hours, with 20 or 30 minutes of rest in the covered bowl between stretches. I do not turn the dough out, I simply pick up the dough, and stretch it. After all the stretching, it will be a smooth, elastic dough.  After a rest, the loaf is formed (on a counter), it is put into a cloth lined plastic colander, and the flaps of the cloth liner are folded over the loaf. If I am using baskets with liners, then I cover the loaf with an elastic/plastic baker’s cover. 

When the loaf is risen, it gets turned into an enameled iron pot that was preheated to 395F, the loaf is slashed, the preheated lid goes on and the pot/loaf goes into the 395F oven with convection for 15 minutes. Then, the lid comes off, and the oven is turned down to 375F with convection. After another 15 minutes, the oven is turned down to 350F without convection. Thus, there is a total of 40 minutes in a “reducing” oven.

Total elapsed time from setting the sourdough on the counter until the bread comes out of the oven is  about 29 hours. (Or 24 hours if I want a denser crumb.) Total elapsed work time over that period is less than 20 minutes – I spend a lot more time washing my hands than I spend actually working on the bread. Total cleanup time is about 5 minutes. Net weight of such a loaf is just over a kilo.

It is a real sourdough – it wants a little rest before cutting. And it keeps well – it reaches a peak a few hours after it comes out of the oven. Because it is really a no-knead dough, I am not limited by the size of my stand mixer, and I am no longer tempted to lay down a big bag of money for a fancy dough mixer.  I can use bigger pots (or a turkey roaster) to bake bigger loaves.


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I had an aunt that was exceptionally partial to bran muffins. When she visited us, I indulged her with fresh muffins every morning. Her recipe (which I scrupulously followed) was based on All-Bran breakfast cereal.  My wife and I prefer Scotch oatmeal, so we do not normally keep All-Bran in the house, so we have not been in the habit of making bran muffins for years.

However, milling flour (and sifting) generates a surplus of bran. I have taken to cheating, I sold out -- bran muffins are back on the menu (in rotation). Making bran muffins is less work than making 100% whole wheat bread (from 100% extraction flour) that my wife likes.  (Some of us do like dark, dense bread a lot! But then, we also eat herring.  :  )

  My muffins are made with soy milk and lemon juice, so I do not need to keep buttermilk. I use fresh-ground, soft-wheat as my flour, so the only evil elements are the small amounts of  brown sugar and oil. They are more healthy than the muffins I made for my aunt.

There is no law that says US PdC must be full of bran. My wife prefers breads made from 90% extraction flour,  and sometimes I add some white bread flour when the menu calls for a less assertive bread. However, today lunch was borscht, which called for a flavorful, dark bread. It was a small loaf, because dinner will be Asian Fusion served with rice, not bread.

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There are the dreams of night that are forgotten with the morning coffee; and, there are the dreams that come as one considers the bread one is eating with morning coffee. Thus, one steps forth in the bright morning light, to find the 7 Pillars of Wisdom. (T.E.L. will forgive me because one of the best breakfast breads I ever had was in Hafer Al-Batin.)

I have been seeking a better PdC for a long time. In the last half of 2018, I was looking at some mix of fresh ground grain and white flour. Those results can be understood by the fact that New Years came and went, and I was still looking.

More promising is my current approach of grinding a mix of grains, sifting out the bran, making a dough, and soaking the bran, then recombining the bran into the dough AFTER the gluten is well developed.

This morning's grain mix was rye, spelt, Kamut, red spring wheat, and red winter wheat. The dough was all sourdough, and the starter is added right up front when I first add the water to the flour. The bran was soaked in a bit of l evain.  

All in all, one of my most successful baking experiments in many years. For a commercial product, I might switch the red winter wheat for a white wheat, but here we have an over-flowing herb garden, and most of our menus want a full flavored bread. 

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I was in a big-box food-service warehouse, and picked up a big bag of Grain Craft Power Flour ($11/25 lb). It is a commercial pizza flour, and I was aiming to increase the amount of whole grain flour/meal in my PdC without compromising volume. Another option would have been to add vital wheat gluten, but the pizza flour is easier, and we sometimes like commercial style pizza and bagels.

The conventional wisdom for Power Flour is that it wants a lot of mixing. Would it work with "sour dough" and less mixing?, e.g., mixing by hand? (Real sourdough is a powerful dough conditioner, and we can use fineness to avoid work.)

Current practice is to keep a sourdough starter of 100 gr of fresh ground grain hydrated with 66 gr of  water in  the fridge.  The evening before a bake, that gets dumped into 200 grams of fresh ground grain with 400 gr water, mixed and left on the counter overnight.  The next morning, 400 gr Power flower mixed with 12 gr salt, is added by hand fulls to the dough and well stirred.   The last of the flour is kneaded in, the dough covered and left at room temperature for a couple of hours.  About 166 grams of dough is removed to the fridge to be the next starter.  After breakfast, the dough gets several "stretch and  folds" at 20 minute intervals. Then, the dough is left to ferment until after lunch.  The dough gets pre-shaped, rested, shaped, and put in lined baskets. The dough rises until a couple of hours before dinner, when it is baked and cooled in time for dinner.  If  the dough seems to be running behind schedule,  I will warm the oven a bit (e.g., 75F),  turn the oven off and leave the dough in the oven that is slightly warmer than the kitchen.  If the dough is running too fast, it goes in the fridge for a while. The wicker brotforms that I use help keep shaped loaves at a stable temperature during final rise. This all happens about every second or third day, unless I am making other kinds of bread.  This has become our staple bread, often embellished with dried fruit, nuts, or various seeds.  Some of the dough may be reserved back, rolled flat and baked into pita bread.  

Hydration is 66% and salt is 2%. The dough mix is 33% fresh ground whole grain and 66% bread flour. Usual kitchen temperature is around 66F - not unlike San Francisco.  That will change as the weather warms, and everything will have to go a bit faster. (I often use fresh ground flour that is warmer, so YMMV.) I do not put "yeast" in my PdC these days, but I do use commercial yeast 2 or 3 times per month, so I would be surprised if there is no commercial yeast in my starter.

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PdC as a modern commercial product is based on modern commercial flours. It has more flavor than white bread, but mostly it does not interfere with the rest of the menu. For Thanksgiving, I took PdC of that school. I knew the first course would be herring – so it had to be a bread that would stand up, to the strong flavors of hearing, but would not overwhelm things like roast turkey and green bean casserole. There was also some white bread.

It was 5% fresh milled whole rye, 20% fresh milled red winter wheat, and 75 % Grain Craft Morbread flour. Morbread is a commercial flour that I like, it is a little stronger than “all purpose” and not as strong as many “bread” flours. One of the things it is blended for, is making breads that use some whole grain flour.   I use it for most of my white bread.

Nevertheless, I find that PdC disappointing.  Food of the country (as opposed to the food in Paris) typically had bigger and bolder flavors. The fresh local produce had more flavor. (See for example Honey from a Weed by Patience Gray). In the country, one can gather fresh greens out of the vineyard, while in Paris you are likely to get spinach that that was bred mostly to look pretty in the market after a truck ride. And, the country has more fresh herbs, thereby encouraging more use of herbs.

I like full flavored foods. Our garden grows rosemary, thyme, oregano, marjoram, bay leaves, lavender, basil, parsley, sage, mint, limes, oranges, lemons, and others in abundance, and we use them in abundance. These foods call for full flavored breads.  

Thus, having spent much of November developing the formula for the Thanksgiving bread, I was glad to get back to my whole wheat breads.

I had been using Kamut (Khorasan wheat) for pita bread.  More recently, I have been using it for 800 gram loaves baked on the stone. The crumb is darker and more open than red spring wheat baked by the process. In fact, for the next few batches, I will be adding some rye and red winter wheat to tighten up the crumb a little. I hope that will come closer to my dream Pain de Campagne.

I have also tightened up my rules.  I use flour within 24 hours of milling. Fresh milled flour speeds all kinds of fermentations, so proofing, fermentation, and rise are much faster. Watch the dough, not the clock. Fresh milled grain has more flavor, so poolish, biga, and sourdough are not required. On the other hand, fresh milled whole grain will ferment really fast, so one can do good sour dough in 5 hours if you watch the dough and have excellent levain.

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 This morning's PdC made in a hurry; but good.


About 6am I ground 25 g rye and 175 g of red winter wheat as fine as possible, then added 400 ml of water, a tsp of instant yeast, and 100 g of very good starter, stirring well. I put a shower cap on it and let it sit at 85F for a couple of hours.

Then, I used a wooden spoon to stir in 400 grams of GM bread flour making a rough dough, put the  shower cap back  on it, and put it back its proof box for half an hour. 

I kneaded it lightly. and put it back in its proof box. it was still not a smooth dough. Then at 20 or 30 minute intervals,  I took it out and did a stretch/fold.  After 4 folds in the course of 90 minutes, the magic of the sour-dough had turned it into bread dough, and I let it ferment for an hour.  (I watch the dough, not the clock.)

I shaped the loaf, and put it in a banneton with it's shower cap, where it sat warm for ~ an hour. A little after 10 am it went into a 400F oven for 35 minutes.  

It was served at noon with pea soup.  A mild bread, not a full flavored sour-dough, so it let the thyme and rosemary tones of the chicken stock used to build the soup come through.  It was good soup and good bread, but together they made an excellent meal.

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I make my baking as easy as possible - I want bread, not the experience of making bread.

I keep a sourdough starter, and I feed it about 30 grams of whole wheat flour and 20 grams of water, about every other day, so it is always ready, always very active, and always about the hydration of my dough - one less thing to worry about.

On a baking day,  I start about 5:30 am by  grinding ~480 grams of hard red wheat and 20 grams of rye malt through the stone burr grain mill 4 times, once coarse, once medium, once fine, and once fine as possible. (Some grain mills are not designed to re-grind meal/flour). This takes less then 10 minutes. I put the fresh flour in a big mixing bowl, (with a lid, I sometimes just use a stock pot), add ~5 grams of instant yeast, about 50 grams  of sough dough starter (often half my starter),  about 666 grams of room temp water,  mix with a wooden spoon,  put the lid on it, and let it ferment at  room temp for ~6 hours. We have wet seasons and dry seasons, so the moisture content of my wheat varies by 5% through the year.  At this stage, I do not worry about hydration.  This mix ferments fairly  rapidly. I check on it and give it a stir a couple of times during the morning. 

After lunch, (1:00 pm) I stir in by handfuls 500 grams of good bread flour and 20 grams of salt,  and I let it sit covered for most of an hour.  In the next hour, I give the dough several stretch and folds, and I adjust hydration either by adding water or flour.   About 2:30 pm the dough gets pre-shaped, bench rested, the loaf/loaves formed, and placed in a proofing basket(s), covered with shower cap(s), and allowed to rise in a warm place for a couple of hours. 

About 4:30, it gets put on the hearthstone in a 450 F oven.  Oven temperature is reduced during baking because we do not like very dark crusts.

Thus, we have fresh bread for dinner at 6 pm.

When I am baking for friends that grew up  with "black bread", I  use more, or even all, whole wheat. The bread should fit the rest of the menu. 


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In high school, Louis Diat was my hero, and I baked croissants, brioches, and challah, so there was fresh bread and pastry in our house almost every day. (Most of the year, there was also a surplus of eggs and garden produce.)  By the late 1970s, I was pastry chef in pretentious restaurants in New York City. After that, I ran and owned restaurants and hotels in California for a few years, before changing my life. In all, I have baked a lot of stuff that looked and tasted just like what you would find in a good bakery.  More recently, I have moved to milling my own flour; and, I like the results.

Today my rules are:

Everything is a compromise.

The (home) chef’s role is to produce the best over-all menu within the limits of budget, schedule, and resources.

I suggest that excellent bread deserves as much status as any other high-end food stuff, and today, excellent bread is rarer and harder to find in commercial establishments than other high-end food stuffs. It is easier to find excellent cheese and excellent wine than excellent bread to go with the fine cheese and fine wine. However, excellent and even great breads can be baked at home.

The pro-baker wants high volume crumb, so s/he can sell air at the price of bread. However, high crumb volume may not suit the home chef’s menu. The restaurant manager puts what looks like a generous basket of bread on the table, but in in fact, it is mostly air. The restaurant does not want you to fill up on bread before you order. In contrast, the farm wife may serve sandwiches to a hungry work crew as they sit in the shade of trucks in the fields. Or, friends show up, and everyone gets to talking and it is nice to be able to put a spread on the table without stopping to cook.  These needs want a bread that is the staff of life.

However, if bread is the “staff of life” and a substantial source of calories, then bread needs to be denser.  And, it needs more nutrition, so the calories from the bread are not the empty calories of white flour. One should not need a mountain of bread on the table to feed active people. And, a denser bread allows a sandwich to make an excellent lunch for a hiker or climber, or member of a harvest crew. And a denser bread does not leak mustard, mayonnaise or . . . . One reason for all the “nutrition bars” is that our bread is full of air, with empty calories.

The pro-baker likes to produce bread that stales quickly, so the shopper will buy more bread tomorrow.  San Francisco Sourdough and even many Parisian “pain de campagne” stale much faster than the sourdough breads that I bake at home. The home baker may want bread that keeps very well for a few days.

The pro-baker does not care about the glycemic load of white bread - s/he does not have to deal with your family’s diabetes over the decades.  The home baker can be proactive, and produce more healthful breads.

The pro-baker wants bread that can be produced quickly; the home chef can schedule to produce better bread with less effort, and that small effort spread over a day or 2 or 3.

The home baker’s needs are not the needs of the pro-baker. The home baker does not need to bake the same breads as the pro-baker.  The home baker does not even need to admire the breads of the pro-baker. (Which is not to say that the competent home baker cannot turnout a pile of beautiful baguettes in an afternoon.) The home baker can adjust the schedule of the bread to fit the schedule of the baker and the house. And, the schedule can vary with the seasons. In the winter, the sourdough process goes faster because I just leave it on the kitchen counter at night, while in summer, I have to put it in the refrigerator overnight. The kitchen counter in winter often produces the better product, but the results are not quite as consistent as putting the dough in the refrigerator. 

Pro-bakers must keep the ovens full, so as one product comes out the next is be ready to go in, thus fermentation and rising times must be carefully calculated. Home bakers working with sourdoughs and production schedules running 12 to 36 hours have more time flexibility. Often these (rye) breads need an hour of cooling time, so you bake during breakfast and eat it at dinner. Or, you bake during the evening news (or algebra homework) and make it into sandwiches in the morning.

Better flour makes better bread

White flour allows for a high degree of consistency – the same recipe in volume over and over- this is good for the pro-baker.  The home baker can change breads with the seasons.

Fresh flour produces better bread, just as fresh vegetables are better than canned or frozen vegetables. However, the use of fresh seasonal vegetables requires adaption to the vegetables available. Likewise, the home baker can adjust their baking to complement the seasonal vegetables.  If you cook with fresh seasonal vegetables, then you should also use fresh flour, and adapt as necessary.

Whole wheat flour has about the shelf-life of an egg.  If you cannot use a bag of flour in a few weeks, then you should arrange to mill flour fresh, because intact wheat berries and intact rye berries will keep for several months under good storage conditions.

Commercial whole-wheat flour has the bran ground fine, so the bran is difficult to sift out. The result is commercial whole wheat flour produces low crumb volume because the fine fragments of bran in the flour cut the gluten strands. Home milled flour can have coarser bran, which is more easily sifted out.  Less bran results in better crumb volume, and the bran can be used elsewhere in the menu. I mill flour, sift out most of the bran, and then mill the flour again a couple of times – this can only be done on certain kinds of grain mills. For sifting, I use a cheap, fine strainer, nothing special. The “dome” shape of the mesh adds to the area of the mesh and makes the job faster. This works because I temper the wheat prior to milling, and the bran comes out in big flakes that can be easily separated. Tempering wheat brings its moisture content up to ~12%.  The baker that resorts to a significant white flour percentage to get good crumb volume, might as well be shoveling sugar into their client’s mouths, and that is not a healthy diet.

Fresh, high extraction flour has a richer, less bitter taste, than most commercial whole grain flours.  Thus, recipes assuming commercial whole grain flour use fat and sugar added to cover the bitterness. In fact, fresh home milled flour is about 4% fat, and is high in omega-3 fatty acids.  (4% fat is about what Julia Child ended up putting in her classic baguette recipe, which called for white flour that has almost no fat in it.) And, a long sourdough fermentation, adds flavor, so other flavorings such as buttermilk, caraway, cocoa, and coriander are less needed.  On the other hand, I find that the addition of malted grain does add speed and ease to the sourdough fermentation, and gives nuances of flavor.  In addition, doughs that spend time at both 75F and 40F (retard) pick up additional nuances of flavor since different sourdough metabolic pathways predominate at different temperatures, producing different metabolic end products resulting in different flavors at different temperatures.

So people ask what the flavoring is, and I tell them that it is just “wheat, water, and salt.”  (My sourdough cultures derive from the wheat flour.)  The point is that one does not need other flavorings to have an excellent and interesting bread.  A perception that any baked good containing mostly white flour is likely to be boring has been creeping up on me for some time. (Perhaps, since I walked around SF looking for good bread circa 1980. By 1982, I lived across the street from the best bakery in the Bay Area at the time.) The perception has been aided by a long series of better milled and better packaged “artisanal” flours.  Each pointed in the direction that better flour allows better baking, and fresher flour is better.

I malt (sprout and dry) some (2% - 5%) of the grain that goes into my flour.   This increases the nutritional value of the flour, and almost as importantly, speeds and improves sourdough fermentation. Some of my malted grain gets toasted, which improves the flavors of some breads. Toasted malts are an excellent route to great dark rye breads.  I think dark (toasted) malts work much better for flavoring dark ryes than coffee or cocoa.

Commercial wheat growers have started using” Roundup (herbicide) to force “desiccation” of some wheat fields resulting in Roundup residues being present in much commercial wheat. This is an off-label use of Roundup, and is illegal under FIFRA. While Roundup has a low acute toxicity, it can cause birth defects in the next generation. I strongly discourage anyone who might be a future parent from eating commercial wheat or bread prepared from commercial wheat.  Organic wheat has become a worth-while investment in future generation’s health.

Measurements and hydration

Commercial flour is tempered to a precise level of hydration, just before packing so weight measurements can be accurate.  As soon as the package is opened, hydration begins to change. Thus, if your flour has been open for a couple of weeks, weight /volume measurements are likely to be inaccurate.  Specifying hydration (mass of flour and water) to 3 significant digits for flour from a package that has been open for a while (days) is a waste of effort.  If the weather is damp and rainy then the weight of your flour will start to change within a few hours.

Weight and volume measurements of home milled flour will not be precise.  The cultivar of grain, the current weather, the fineness of the grind, all affect the effective hydration. Some cultivars differ in hydration needs by 100%. Commercial mills can blend to achieve more consistency, but blending is difficult for the small volumes milled in the home. I adjust hydration as I work the dough. And, sometimes I wet my hands to work doughs, rather than flouring them.

Mostly, I work by weight, and for most ordinary breads, I use a hydration of about 65%. That is: 3 parts by weight of flour is hydrated with 2 parts by weight of water. Salt is added at ~2% of the weight of the flour. The sourdough starter is fed with 2 parts of water and 3 parts of flour. This is quick, and easily scalable. A classic 1-2-3 recipe.

It is worth noting, that the classic 1-2-3 recipe is what Joe Ortiz brought back from Europe more than 30 years ago as the secret to the great breads of Europe for use at Gayle’s Bakery, only to see that he already had that recipe, and the secret was the process, not some magic of precise proportions. The secret is in what Jacques Pepin calls “method” and “technique”, (and I would add ingredients). By using different methods, one can use different techniques and ingredients to achieve good product. And, with good technique, one can use different methods and ingredients to achieve good results. For example, there are many different ways to make good baguettes, and more than one way to make excellent baguettes.  All of these methods can be reduced to 2 parts of water to 3 parts of flour.

 A kilo of wheat/rye dough for a miche is 1,000 grams divided by 5 => each part being 200 grams. Thus, 400 g water is added to 200 grams of starter, 13 grams of salt and 600 grams of mixed wheat/rye flour is added. Some batches, depending on the menu, get a pinch of instant yeast. Often the flour mix is 5% sprouted wheat, 20 % rye, and 75 % wheat, that is milled once, sifted and then passed through the mill 3 more times. It is a golden flour that produces a tan crumb. During baking, water will be lost, so the final weight will be ~ 750 grams. The lost water makes steam in the oven and a good crust.

 Baguettes for 20 people => 80 oz. bread, so a pound of starter, 2 lb. water, and 3 lb. of flour, with an ounce of salt and pinch of yeast in the mix.  It takes me about half an hour to mill, sift, and re-mill that much flour. With the sourdough, and the long rise, the bread will keep well for a couple of days, so for just the 2 of us, I divide by 4, and we have very good bread for the next day.

Mostly the difference between a country miche and a baguette is the composition of the flour, and how the dough is handled, shaped, and baked. My bread usually comes out of the oven about 18 to 24 hours after mixing the dough. 

Things like brioche, croissants, and so forth are different.

I just need to make sure that I have enough good active starter ready to go. I can double my starter every 12 hours, or I can put it in the refrigerator. In the refrigerator, it will develop a more nuanced flavor. Starter that needs to be refreshed, is likely to be refreshed, and used for waffles, or biscuits or something.  Starter, that is just starting, (and not strong enough to raise bread on it’s own) is likely to be used to add extra flavor to yeast breads rather than being discarded as in most instructions for starting starter.

I allow about 3 days to sprout, dry/toast, and mill malt.  (Actual working time is about 10 minutes spread over 3 days.)

Mixing and kneading

I use long autolyze periods. An extra hour just makes the dough easier to knead.

The plain doughs get about 4 - 6 minutes in the mixer at medium speed.

I am a big fan of stretching and folding.  I often stretch and fold after the dough goes into the retard to help speed the cooling of dough.  And, stretching and folding will help the dough warm up as it comes out of the retard - a couple more stretching and folding events (with rests between) will not hurt your dough.  Pro-bakers cannot afford the time to touch the dough more than they absolutely must.  Home bakers can spend more time playing with their dough.

 I am a fan of dividing, rounding up, pre-shaping, and then final loaf shaping.

I mostly ferment and proof at normal kitchen temperatures of 65F to 75F, and adjust the time to suit the temperatures.   Many doughs are retarded overnight. 

I am a fan of letting miche rise in floured, cloth lined, plastic colanders. Baguettes rise on floured cotton duck on sheet pans.


Gas ovens are very different from electric ovens! Wood fired ovens that have the fire on the baking floor are different from ovens that have a fire box underneath the baking floor.  Steam heated ovens are different from gas ovens with steam injection. Really! Baking directions/ steam injection instructions are very specific to the kind of oven!! I have used the above kinds of ovens and a few others.  

The truth is, that bread dough is mostly water, and that water can make steam, but any (and all) water in the oven, cools the oven. In any kind of oven that can be closed-up (e.g., electric, not gas), if you match the amount of dough put in the oven at one time to the capacity of the oven, the water in the dough will make enough steam to make a good crust, and any additional water (particularly ice, but even boiling water) will cool the oven.  The secret to a good crust in an electric oven is to load the properly preheated oven with right amount of dough.  Thus, the easy approach is to scale all recipes to the size of YOUR electric oven. In ovens that cannot be sealed, the steam will escape, and you need a cloche.  If you must make a small batch of bread in a big electric oven, use a cloche.

For my Wolf Oven, the right load of bread on the “Stone” setting is ~ 1 kilo. My oven will produce a better crust on 2 kilos of dough than it does 0.5 kilo. The right load is a nice miche or a half-sheet pan of baguettes or 3 loaf pans.  If I need 80 oz of baguettes, one pan of baguettes is retarded for a baking cycle.  (Sourdough baguettes will tolerate an extra hour of waiting, unlike high speed yeast baguettes.   :  )  I do not use the Wolf baking stone, I prefer a 14” by 18 “ porcelain floor tile.

Preparing the appropriate load for the oven is less effort than using a cloche.  An extra pound or two of good sourdough bread that will keep for days, is not the end of the world.

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