The Fresh Loaf

A Community of Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts.

swissbake's blog

swissbake's picture

Baker's Yeast has an influential role in the baking process. If the right amount of yeast is not included in the recipe, it will lead to an undesirable taste and improper texture in your bread. SwissBake brings before you some interesting facts about baker's yeast and its importance in bread making.

Baker's Yeast is a natural biological leavening agent that possesses basic attributes of all living things, which are respiration and reproduction. It is a unicellular microorganism found on and around the human body. Baker's yeast is a fermenting agent that belongs to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species and is actually a member of the mushroom family.

Yeast plays the most important role in bread making. Yeast loves to be able to eat their favorite sugar in a warm, moist environment where they will multiply in numbers. As the yeast munch away on their sugar, a process called anaerobic fermentation begins to take place. The by-products of this process are alcohol and carbon dioxide. In other words, one molecule of glucose sugar yields two of alcohol and two of carbon dioxide gas.

C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2 CO2

During this time, the carbon dioxide is trapped by a series of strands of gluten in the rising bread. This is what causes the bread dough to rise, or expand on the surface, leaving behind a series of air pockets in the dough. The yeast eventually dies off, from the heat when baking, and any remaining alcohol evaporates. The air pockets left behind are what give baked bread its crunchy goodness.

Traditionally, yeast was known as "fresh yeast" which was a firm and homogeneous paste-like product with a creamy or ivory tint. With almost 70% of the water content in the fresh yeast, leading it has a limited shelf life which was 10 to 15 days at 15ºC (59ºF), or 30 days at 0º C (32ºF). It was advisable to use ASAP, If stored at 20ºC (68ºF).

Further, Two types of dry yeast were obtained from Fresh Yeast by subjecting it to low-temperature drying processes. If compared to fresh yeast, dry yeast has a longer shelf life and can be stored in a refrigerator and used whenever necessary.

The older of these two types are available in the form of small granules containing only 7% humidity. These yeast cells are in the latent state which must be reactivated in advance, in order to use it, as an active leavening agent. This is done by rehydrating the yeast in five times its weight at a temperature of 38ºC (100.4ºF), along with little sugar. After 15 to 20 minutes of rest, the reconstituted yeast can be actively used for baking.

The second dry yeast type is the most recently developed, known as "Instant" yeast which is available in the form of small rod-shaped pieces, similar to vermicelli in shape. This type of yeast is more subtle than fresh yeast, as far as taste is concerned and even more subtle than the granulated dry yeast. The Instant yeast seems to accord more importance to the influence of the taste of wheat flour, to alcoholic fermentation and to the effects of baking, which is beneficial to the taste to the bread.

Baker's Yeast provides the perfect puff and rise in your bread with proper texture and desirable taste which will leave us wanting for more.

The usage of Baker's Yeast in the preparation of bread differs from variety to variety of the bread. For more information regarding usage of baker's yeast with your recipe of baking bread, kindly mail us at and we will get back to you with the exact proportion of baker's yeast required to get a perfect rise and texture for your baking bread.

swissbake's picture

For a layman who is trying to bake bread, the processes of mixing the dough are only mixing all the ingredients together and get a dough. But mixing dough has more scientific importance in bread making which is directly responsible for the quality of bread produced, i.e the final output. So the process of mixing the dough in breadmaking has its own importance, which cannot be overlooked at since it will definitely affect the final output as bread.

Purposes Of Mixing Dough Are:

  • To distribute the yeast cell throughout the dough
  • Distribute food for the yeast which will further lead to the fermentation process.
  • To form and develop Gluten.
  • Hydrate the flour and other dry ingredients 

Bread dough mixing requires a method where all the ingredients are homogeneously mixed and hydrated which will result in a well-developed gluten network. Basically, Gluten is formed when water is mixed with the wheat flour. Gluten is a water-insoluble protein and has a great importance in bread making process. During mixing, a continuous network of proteins forms giving the dough its strength and elasticity. By holding gas produced during fermentation, the protein network allows bread to rise.

Traditionally mixing was done in slow speed only, due to lack of knowledge and technology. But slow mixing results into a low level of physical dough development leading to a longer fermentation process. This style of mixing yield excellent flavours, but resulting the loaves denser.

Three Basic Methods For Mixing Dough:

1. Straight Dough Method.

The straight dough mixing method is the simplest mixing method of all. It consists of only one step. You don't have to think much about this method, combine all ingredients in the mixing bowl and mix. While using this method, there is a possibility that the yeast doesn't get evenly distributed in the dough. Therefore It is safer to mix yeast separately with a little water.

  • Soften the yeast in a little of the water. Ideal temperature is 43.33ºC (110ºF)
  • Combine the remaining ingredients, including the rest of the water, in the mixing bowl. Add the dissolved yeast, taking care not to let it come in contact with the salt. 
  • Mix to a smooth, developed dough.

2. Modified Straight Dough Method or Modified Mixing.

The modified mixing method is basically for rich sweet dough. This is basically the modification of the straight dough method to ensure that the fact and sugar are evenly distributed in the dough.

  • Soften the yeast in part of the liquid, using a separate container. 
  • Combine the fat, sugar, salt and flavourings and mix until well combined, but do not whip until light. 
  • Add the eggs gradually, as fast as they are absorbed. 
  • Add the liquid and mix briefly. 
  • Add the flour and yeast. Mix to a smooth dough.

3. Sponge Method

Many Bakers feel this method of mixing is very effective to achieve a better texture, rise and even the taste for the rich yeast dough recipes. Sponge method allows the yeast to speedily and fully ferment and activate with part of the flour and water in the recipe and later incorporated with the remainder of the ingredients. This method is successfully prepared by following two stages which help the yeast action to get a head start.

  • Combine the liquid, the yeast, and part of the flour (and sometimes part of the sugar). Mix into a thick batter or soft dough. Let ferment until double in bulk. 
  • Punch down and add the rest of the flour and the remaining ingredients. Mix to a uniform, smooth dough.

Importance of Dough Mixing

Mixing of Dough is the most important stage in the entire process of baking. During this process, both the development of dough and temperature of the dough are established. If either of them or both of them are not spot on the processing than the product quality will suffer. If you do it wrong, there is no second chance to correct it later in further processes. Hence, mixing has a great importance and must be performed with proper discipline.

The secret behind the good quality of the baked product is mixing of the dough. If you are not disciplined at it, you will struggle to get the ideal product quality for your Bread.

We hope the information in this blog has been valuable to you. Do share your comments, queries or concerns regarding this blog with us.

Have a topic in mind, you want us to write on? We are open to hearing from you. Kindly write to us on Thank You for reading.

swissbake's picture

Eggs are wonderful. They are used in so many baked products and in so many ways. Most cakes are not possible without eggs and cookies are also difficult to make without eggs.

An egg is composed of three main parts plus membranes and two white strands called chalazae that hold the yolk in the center of the white.

The shell that contains the egg is fragile and porous. It is important to remember that eggs absorb flavors and odors through the shell and therefore they must be protected from strong smelling substances and unsanitized surfaces. When baking, make sure that your eggs are odor free. A tainted egg will spoil your product.

The yolk is high in both fat and protein and is a natural emulsifier. It is rich in vitamins and minerals and contains cholesterol. The color of the yolk varies depending on the diet of the chicken but the color is not an indicator of food value or quality.

The white is primarily albumin protein. It is clear and soluble before it is cooked. It contains sulfur and becomes odorous when old.

About 3/4’s of the egg by weight is water, hence when you add eggs to the batter you add a great deal of water into the product. The remaining portion is nearly equal parts of fat and protein.

So what role do eggs really play in the process of baking Here is a list of nine different functions of eggs in baking:

Structure: As eggs cook, the protein coagulates and provides stiffness to the product.

Leavening: Eggs help in leaves by trapping air cells in whipped eggs or egg whites. Angel food and chiffon cakes are often entirely leavened using eggs.

Tenderizing: The fat in the egg yolk shortens gluten strands in batters and dough to tenderize the product.

Moisture: Since eggs are mostly water, they moisten the products to which they are added.

Wash: Egg whites and egg yolks are used as washes on baked goods like croissants and Danish pastries to give them a glossy finish and on rustic bread to hold sesame seeds and other accouterments in place.

Emulsifying: Eggs act as natural emulsifiers that help in making the batter smooth.

Flavor: They add a unique taste and flavor to the baked goods.

Color: Most lemon meringue pie recipes rely entirely on egg yolks for color.

Nutrition: They add nutritional value such as protein, Vitamin D, and choline (an important nutrient for the brain, nervous system, and cardiovascular system).

swissbake's picture

Wetter is Better

European rustic bread requires very high levels of hydration, anywhere from 60% to 75%. That means for every kilogram of flour you use, try to use almost 3/4ths kilogram of water.

Slow & steady wins the race.

It takes a time to really invoke the best flavors from your grains. The more you slow down the fermentation process, the better your loaf is likely to taste.

The exceptions to this rule are bread with a lot of sugar in them. Sugars are yeast's food. If you increase the fermentation time for dough with lots of sugar in it, you are likely to get something that tastes overly fermented, perhaps like beer.

But almost all the European bread including French bread will benefit if you reduce the amount of yeast in your recipe and increase the time you allow the dough to ferment.

Bake with High Heat

Every baker wants to get the most oven spring. "Oven spring" is the final rise that happens within the first few minutes of baking once the loaf is kept in the oven. Good oven spring can make the difference between mediocre and great bread.

When preheating the oven to bake European bread, turn it up to the maximum temperature of about 300ºC. Once its time to load the proofed loaves in the oven turn down the temperature to 230ºC – 240ºC and immediately load the loaves for baking. The additional temperature during the first few minutes helps compensate for the heat lost while loading the oven and creates a nice, hot environment that will maximize yeast activity.

Bread requires a hot oven to rise completely so ALWAYS preheat your oven before baking.

Steam the Oven

Professional baking ovens have steam injectors. Right after placing the loaves inside, give them a good blast of steam. The steam keeps the outside of the loaves moist and supple so that the bread can spring for as long as possible. Once the outside of the loaf begins to dry out, it hardens, preventing further spring. Then the crust begins to form.

 These Tips are provided by SwissBake

swissbake's picture

Swiss Bake French style flours are traditionally milled by artisan millers and the entire flour range is produced from imported French grown wheat or with a blend of locally grown equivalent wheat varieties.

These quality flours from us are a result of our dedication and passion for well-crafted flour.  Each year we produce only a limited quantity of each refined flour on order estimates from our most demanding chefs and bakers.


French classification for flour is based on the resulting amount of residue after processing 10 kg of flour in a 600º C furnace. T45 or Type 45 is the lowest and whitest flour with only around 45 grams of mineral contents left after the burning process and no part of the bran (outer enveloping shell of the grain) remaining. Similarly, T150 has around 150 grams of mineral contents and is considered as whole-wheat flour due to high bran leftover.


  • T45 Swiss-Bake French Style Flour, 25kg bag

Soft Wheat, White Fine flour for cakes


Pure French style flour, perfect for making high quality cakes and sweets. It is fine, soft and white in colour. It is very light in texture and has very little mineral content. T45 is finely ground flour using the soft wheat varieties.

It is not suitable for bread but is typically used for brioche and sometimes for croissants. T45 refers to the amount of mineral content that is left after burning the flour i.e. T45 has 0.45% mineral content.


T45 flour is equivalent to Type 00 Italian flour, Euro 450 flour type and American Cake flour.


Mineral Content : 0.40% – 0.45%   

Protein Content  : 8.50% – 9.50%


Key Ingredients: 100% milled soft wheat

Swiss-Bake French style T45 flour is neither bleached nor chlorinated.


Hard Wheat White flour for baking


Strong French style White Bread Flour; type T55 is ideal for making bread, puff pastries, croissants and baguettes. This type of flour is best known for making croissants. This Flour gives a light open textured loaf with a crisp crust. It is medium in protein content, and when this protein is mixed with water it forms gluten. Traditional French bread is made with only flour, yeast and water. That’s the reason why good quality flour is a must.


The 55 refers to the amount of mineral content that is left after burning the flour i.e. T55 has about 0.55% mineral content.


T55 flour is equivalent to Type 0 Italian flour, Euro 550 flour type and American all purpose flour.


Mineral Content : 0.50% – 0.55%   

Protein Content  : 11.0% – 12.0%


Key Ingredients: Wheat Flour, Wheat Gluten, Malted Wheat flour, Cereal Amylase

Swiss-Bake French style T55 flour is non-fortified, unbleached and non-bromated


Extra Strong Bread flour for little dark breads


Strong French style little coarse Bread Flour; type T65 is ideal for making baguettes and artisan dark breads. This type of flour is best known for making baguettes. This flour gives a light open textured loaf with a crisp crust. It is high in protein content and has phenomenal fermentation tolerance.


The 65 refers to the amount of mineral content that is left after burning the flour i.e. T65 has about 0.65% mineral content.


T65 flour is equivalent to Type 1 Italian flour, Euro 650 flour type and high gluten bread flour.


Mineral Content : 0.60% – 0.65%   

Protein Content  : 12.0% – 13.5%


Key Ingredients: Wheat Flour, Wheat Gluten, Malted Wheat flour, Cereal Amylase

Swiss-Bake French style T65 flour is non-fortified, unbleached and non-bromated

T150 Swiss-Bake French Style Flour, 25kg bag

Coarse ground wholemeal flour for baking


Wholemeal French style coarse Flour; type T150 is ideal for making whole wheat, high fibre artisan breads and baguettes. This type of flour is best suited for all your whole wheat baking needs. This flour gives a brown textured loaf with a crisp crust. It is high in mineral content & protein and gives a nice wholemeal aroma.  This wholesome flour gives nutrition, texture and flavour of wholemeal (including bran & germ)to everything that you bake with it.


The 150 refers to the amount of mineral content that is left after burning the flour i.e. T150 has about 1.50% mineral content.


T150 flour is equivalent to Type 2 Italian flour, Euro 1150 flour type and whole meal bread flour.


Mineral Content : 1.25% – 1.50%   

Protein Content  : 12.0% – 13.5%


Key Ingredients: Whole Wheat Flour, Wheat Gluten, Malted Wheat flour, Cereal Amylase

Swiss-Bake French style T65 flour is non-fortified, unbleached and non-bromated


Perfect Pizza flour


Perfect Pizza flour made using custom blend of durum and all-purpose flour along with dough conditioners and functional enzymes. It is fine milled flour with higher protein content for a perfect crust. This flour shows outstanding fermentation tolerance, good water absorption and improved strechibility strength. The dough is easy to shape and gives crispiness to the baked crust.


Swiss-Bake Pizza flour is equivalent to Type 00 Italian flour and other imported Pizza flour.


Mineral Content : 0.45% – 0.50%   

Protein Content  : 11.0% – 12%


Key Ingredients: Wheat Flour, Dough Conditioners, Malted Wheat flour, Cereal Amylase, Salt


Swiss-Bake Pizza flour is non-fortified, unbleached and non-bromated.


Our Rye Flour gives a dense and dark texture with full rye flavour. This flour can be used in combination with refined wheat flour to make varieties of rye sandwich breads and other artisan rye breads.

Rye Flour Type 1150


This dark medium granulation flour is milled from imported German rye grains and grits. It is slightly dark and milled closer to bran than the endosperm. It gives a dense and dark texture with full rye flavour (slightly sour). This flour can be used in combination with refined wheat flour to make varieties of rye sandwich breads and other artisan rye breads.


Rye Flour Type 1150 is equivalent to a medium to dark rye flour.


Mineral Content : 1.25% – 1.35%   

Protein Content  : 8.0% – 9.0%


Key Ingredients: 100% Rye flour


Swiss-Bake Rye flour is non-fortified, unbleached and non-bromated.
Keywords: Rye flour, German Flour, dark Flour, American Rye, Rye Bread Bakery ingredients, Pumpernickel


Subscribe to RSS - swissbake's blog