The Fresh Loaf

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Worthwhilebubble's picture

I've had a lot of compliments for this pic elsewhere so I thought it may be appreciated here too. 70% hydration, 20% wholemeal. I will expand on my method if anyone is interested.

Benito's picture

This recipe is an adaptation of Maurizio’s cardamon sweet roll recipe.  The dough is enriched and uses a Yudane to gelatinize some of the starches to make for a more shreddable soft crumb.  After the delicious cake I made last week using yuzu lemon I was trying to think of other ways of using lemon and yuzu and thought about sweet rolls.  So these are filled with lemon sugar and iced with a yuzu vanilla cream cheese icing.  Let’s hope this works and tastes good. 

8”x8” square pan, lined with parchment.

Total Dough Weight

1,200 grams

Sourdough starter in final dough



Nine large rolls (baked in an 8 x 8″ square pan)

Total Dough Formula

Desired dough temperature: 76°F (24°C).



Baker’s Percentage


Yudane: All-purpose flour (~11% protein, King Arthur Baking All-Purpose)



Yudane: Water, boiled



All-purpose flour (~11.7% protein, King Arthur Baking All-Purpose)



Butter, unsalted and at room temperature



Milk, whole






Sugar, caster



Cardamom, ground






Sourdough starter


1 large egg is about 50 g 


Need 152 g levain

Levain build overnight 

11 g + 72 g + 72 g

And prepare Yudane so it is cool and ready first thing in the morning.


Yuzu cream cheese icing


  • 8 ounces cream cheese, at room temperature 226 g 
  • 4 tablespoons softened butter, at room temperature
  • 1/2-1 cup powdered sugar - more if too thin, less if too thick
  • 3 tablespoons Yuzu tea (will need to taste)
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract


 In a large bowl using a hand-held mixer or stand mixer fitted with a whisk or paddle attachment, beat the butter on medium speed until creamy, about 2 minutes. Add the cream cheese and beat until completely smooth and combined. Add confectioners’ sugar, yuzu tea, and vanilla extract with the mixer running on low. Increase to high speed and beat for 3 minutes. Add more confectioners’ sugar if frosting is too thin, more yuzu tea or lemon juice if frosting is too thick, or add a pinch of salt if frosting is too sweet. (I always add a pinch of salt!). Can top with extra lemon zest after iced.


1. Pre-cook Flour (Yudane) – 8:00 a.m. or night before and cover tightly.

Be sure to make this yudane ahead of time to give it time to cool before mixing. The texture of the mixture seems to improve if left to rest for at least one hour.

 Do ahead:  Alternatively, you could make the yudane the night before, let it cool, then cover and place it in the fridge. The next morning, let it warm to room temperature before mixing it into your dough.





All-purpose flour




Boil the water and pour it over the flour in a small heat-proof mixing bowl. Stir with spatula (not a whisk as the Yudane will get stuck in the tines) until the mixture tightens up and all dry bits are incorporated. Let the pre-gelatinized flour cool on the counter until you mix the main dough. 


2. Mix – 7:00 a.m.

Because I used a KitchenAid stand mixer to quickly and efficiently mix, and because I'm not looking for added extensibility, I decided against using an autolyse for this enriched dough.




Yudane (from above)


All-purpose flour


Butter, unsalted and at room temperature


Milk, whole




Sugar, caster


Cardamom, ground




Sourdough starter

Add some lemon juice 1.5% = 8.7 g 


Mix room temperature softened butter 136 g with 136 g of flour, set aside.

Mix 136 g of eggs, 25 g of sugar , levain, Yudane, cardamon and 131 g milk with 268 g flour and

mix until the dough is fairly well developed and clumps around the dough hook.  You should almost be able to do a windowpane.  Then add the butter/flour mixture  gradually to the dough in the stand mixer waiting until the previous addition is fully absorbed.  Pre-mixing the butter with flour makes the butter easier to incorporate.

The dough should be strong and smooth at the end of mixing.  


Transfer your dough to a bulk fermentation container and cover.

3. Bulk Fermentation – 7:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m.

At warm room temperature, around 76°F (24°C), bulk should take about 3 hours. If your kitchen is cooler, place the pan to rise in a small dough proofer, or extend bulk fermentation as necessary.

Give this dough three sets of stretch and folds during bulk fermentation at 30-minute intervals. The first set starts after 30 minutes from the start of bulk fermentation. For each set, wet your hands, grab one side and stretch it up and over the dough to the other side. Rotate the bowl 180° and perform another stretch and fold (this forms a long rectangle in the bowl). Then, rotate the bowl 90° and do another stretch and fold. Finally, turn the bowl 180° and do one last stretch and fold. You should have the dough neatly folded up in the bowl.

After the third set, let the dough rest, covered, for the remainder of bulk fermentation.


4. Chill Dough – 10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.

At this point, your dough should have risen in your bulk container, be puffy to the touch, and have smoothed out. If the dough still feels dense and tight, give it another 15 minutes and check again.

Place your covered bulk fermentation container in the refrigerator for at least one hour to fully chill the dough.


5. Roll and Shape – 11:30 a.m.

Before removing your dough from the refrigerator, make the filling. In a small mixing bowl, combine the following. It may seem like it's not enough filling to cover the entire surface of the dough—spread it thin.

Lemon Sugar Filling 

2 tablespoons lemon zest

¾ cup sugar 

To make the filling. In a small bowl, combine the sugar and the 2 tablespoons lemon zest. 

Make this filling when your dough is chilling in the fridge. 

Melt 30 g of butter.

Be sure to give it enough time to let the melted butter slightly cool.


The dough should be cold and firm to the touch; give it more time to chill if necessary.

Next, butter your baking pan (even if it’s nonstick) to ensure the rolls remove cleanly after baking or line with parchment paper.

This dough is very soft. Act quickly to roll, spread the filling, and cut before the dough warms and softens further. If it begins to soften, place it in the fridge to firm.


Remove your bulk fermentation container from the fridge, lightly flour your work surface in a large rectangle shape, and the top of the dough in the bowl. Then, gently scrape out the dough to the center of your floured rectangle. Lightly dust the top of the dough with flour, and using a rolling pin, roll the dough out to a 15″ x 15″ square.

Brush the top of the dough with the melted butter, then sprinkle the lemon sugar on evenly as in the photo above.  It may look and feel like not enough filling, but there's plenty when the dough is rolled up.


Starting at one of the long sides of the rectangle in front of you, begin rolling up the dough as you move across. Be sure to tightly roll the dough by gently tugging on the dough as you roll.

Once finished rolling up the dough, divide it into nine 1 1/2″ pieces using a sharp knife. Transfer the pieces to the prepared baking pan and cover with a large, reusable bag.


6. Cold Proof – 2:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. (Overnight) As you can see above, the nine cut pieces are placed into the square pan, ready for their overnight proof in the refrigerator. Also noticeable is how soft the dough is—it's ok if they're not neatly placed into the pan. As they rise, they'll fill the nooks and crannies.

Place the covered pan into the refrigerator and proof overnight.

7. Warm Proof – 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. (next morning)

In the morning, take the pan out of the refrigerator about three to four hours before you want to bake the rolls, depending on the temperature in your kitchen.

Be sure to start preheating your oven about 30 minutes before you feel the rolls will be fully proofed. For me, the final warm proof time was about 3 hours in my 77°F (25°C) proofer, so I started preheating around 9:30 a.m.

8. Bake – 10:00 a.m.

Preheat your oven, with a rack in the middle, to 400°F (200°C). After the warm proof, uncover your dough and gently press the tops of a few rolls. As you can see above, the fully proofed cardamom rolls will look very soft. The texture of the dough will be almost like a whipped mousse. Be sure to give them extra time in warm proof if necessary. If the dough needs more time to proof, cover the pan and give the dough another 15 to 30 minutes at a warm temperature and check again.

Once your oven is preheated, remove your pan from its bag, slide it into the oven, and bake for 30 to 35 minutes.

While your rolls are baking, prepare the yuzu vanilla cream cheese icing.




  • 8 ounces cream cheese, at room temperature 226 g 
  • 4 tablespoons softened butter, at room temperature
  • 1/2-1 cup powdered sugar - more if too thin, less if too thick
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • Yuzu cream cheese icing - yuzu tea instead of lemon juice and zest

     In a large bowl using a hand-held mixer or stand mixer fitted with a whisk or paddle attachment, beat the butter on medium speed until creamy, about 2 minutes. Add the cream cheese and beat until completely smooth and combined. Add confectioners’ sugar, lemon juice, and vanilla extract with the mixer running on low. Increase to high speed and beat for 3 minutes. Add more confectioners’ sugar if frosting is too thin, more lemon juice if frosting is too thick, or add a pinch of salt if frosting is too sweet. (I always add a pinch of salt!). Can top with extra lemon zest after iced.


    9. Ice the rolls

    While the rolls are still slightly warm, ice the rolls with the yuzu vanilla cream cheese icing.  Optionally, you may top with either yuzu peel from the yuzu tea or lemon zest.

These are now in cold retard until tomorrow and will be baked midday.

Benito's picture

You may know my frustration with this grain and trying to learn to bake with it at 100%.  With much advice and good helpful suggestions from many here, you know who you are so thank you, I think my fifth bake is the best so far without having seen the crumb.

So what changed with this bake?  First was a drop in hydration from 80% to 75%.  This really did seem drier than I am used to dealing with and now that I think I have the fermentation a bit better figured out, I think I would increase this back up.  The dough was so NOT sticky that I didn’t really need to wet my hands to do the coil folds.  I still did a fair number of slap and folds, but I didn’t do a lamination.  The reason for this is that I was worried about the gluten and didn’t want to stress it by doing a lamination.  Whether or not that was a good thing to leave out, who knows.  I did four coil folds during bulk after an initial bench letterfold and ended bulk at only 40% rise in the aliquot jar.  Other than for baguettes where I end bulk at 20%, this is the lowest I ever end bulk.  But for this flour going to 50% was too far.  Then the dough was shaped and left for 30 mins on the bench until the aliquot jar reached 45% and then placed in the fridge at 3ºC.  After a few hours in the fridge I noticed that the dough had risen further which I’m not used to seeing in my cold retarded doughs.  So after a short for me 8 hour cold retard I decided to bake.  This is what came of all of this.  

MichaelLily's picture

Every month, starting January 2020, my bakery offers a subscription "Taste Tester Box" following a predetermined theme. We have three options: a bread box, a treats box, and an everything box. The everything boxes are huge and our subscribers get roughly four pounds of breads and the equivalent of 6 of our quarter pound+ almond croissants. Each month features two or three different breads and three different treats. This model has allowed us to be creative, try new things, and spend a little more time on a process or a little more money on ingredients, while finding out, in a profitable way, what our customers like of the new products (like our cheese curd sourdough, which is an all-time hit). We expected around 30 subscribers in the first quarter of last year. We opened with 80, and then have been sold out with around 145 subscribers monthly since February 2020.

April was the Chocolate Lovers' Box, featuring Chocolate Cherry Sourdough and Nutella Babka, chocolate rye cookies, billionaire bars (inflation and alliteration!), and a chocolate covered strawberry cheesecake Danish.

May will be the Jerusalem Box, and I found my preliminary research very interesting. We made trials of the pictured items today, starting at the top and going clockwise: a date-almond-pomegranate sweet bread courtesy of Paul Hollywood, a Jerusalem bagel, ma'aoul, and kabuneh.

The DAP loaf isn't anything amazing technique-wise, but it has a special flavor. It includes orange and cardamom as well as the titular ingredients (and a pomegranate molasses that I had made myself rather a long time ago). We underbaked it in the middle. Even pros make mistakes!

The Jerusalem bagel came out great (I think; I have never had one before though). It was very simple to make. I did not degas the dough after a short bulk fermentation (I am not used to doing that), and as such, I did not give it a full final proof, and I think that's why it came out right. It is an instant yeast dough, very quick, and is not boiled. And it looks so unique!

The ma'aoul is a date-filled cookie I found out about when looking for qatayef recipes. The dough is almost a shortbread with semolina (they say anything from all semolina to no semolina is authentic. We used mostly semolina), and the filling in this version is mostly dates and rosewater. Orange blossom water is alternatively used if you were able to find such a thing at your local coop. You can guess whether I was able to find it at my local coop. I thought these cookies were really interesting. There is a cool mold you can use that apparently is traditional. They remind me of the date cookies at my supermarket that look gross but are actually good, because dates are better than they look and sound (okay, I love going on dates with my wife, so they sound good).

The last item is the kabuneh, which really reminded me of when I made malooga (a Yemeni flatbread) a few years back. It is a slightly sweet yeasty dough, portioned in large buns, and then spread on a well-buttered surface with well-buttered hands until it is paper thin and covered in butter. At this time, it is folded into thirds and then rolled into the cinnamon bun-shape you see above. It is raised and baked in a buttered tin-foil chamber (a cake pan, or regular pan, supports the shape), and covered with more buttered tin foil if you do not have a traditional kabuneh pan (there is such a thing). Traditionally it is baked at a low heat overnight, but Modernist Bread has a variation that bakes for 45 minutes before cooling another 20 minutes in its chamber before being uncovered. The result is a soft, buttery roll that flakes apart. I inverted the loaf pictured, as is sometimes done, and sometimes not.

I hope this post motivates you or piques your interest or is otherwise not a waste of time!   

Ang's picture


These two loaves were made from the same batch.  The boule did not rise as much and had a dense crumb.  The Batard had a fantastic rise, nice open (maybe too open) crumb.  The internal structure was very weak.  

King Arthur All Purpose Flour 73% Hydration

5.5 hours bulk fermentation time

Dough temp throughout 79 degrees

Shaping technique maybe a little too aggressive on the boule?

Any ideas, suggestions would be welcome.  :)






ciabatta's picture

Finally got myself to do a rye bread. I didn’t grow up eating much rye bread and don’t understand it well. To me, it has a bad reputation of being a dense bread. But I do know that there can be a lot of flavor and nutritional value. 

my first attempt at it is only about 25% coarse dark rye (Bob’s Red Mill)  I think it turned out great!  Will up the rye content in the next version. 

200g 100% hydration levain
250g coarse dark rye flour
250g whole wheat flour
250g strong bread flour (KA Lancelot)
250g bread flour
800g water
20g sea salt
20g brown sugar
20g honey 
80g farro grain hot soaker overnight

Built the levain overnight along with the farro soaked in hot water

next morning, autolyze all the flour and water for 1.5 hrs

mixed in levain, salt, brown sugar, honey in mixer for 5 minutes. Very sticky. Rest 1 hr

4 sets of stretch and fold 1 hr apart at 85F. Farro is mixed in after 2nd set. 1.5 hrs final bulk at 75F. It’s quite airy actually. decent gluten development but still very sticky. 

Preheat oven to 500F with Dutch ovens loaded. 
divide to 3 loaves and preshape. rest 15 mins dust too with rice flour, flip and final shape. Load into paper bowls and refrigerate. Lots of rice flour used. 

when Dutch ovens come to temp. Load loaves onto parchment, score and bake covered 20 mins. Cover removed for another 45 minutes at 400F. Much longer than usual due to high hydration. (I actually did different darkness of crust for each loaf and liked the darkest one most)


the crust turned out light and crunchy with loads of nutty flavor. The crumb was soft and surprisingly light. The farro in the crust were super crispy where as the ones in the crumb gave it a little chew. 

I’ll be making this one again. (But will experiment with higher percentage rye. This may be my favorite bread crust that I’ve made. 


Benito's picture

I wanted to try baking a 100% (or close to 100%) white flour only hearth loaf as I don’t think I’ve done this before.  It isn’t perfect, the scoring was off center in a way that altered the ultimate bloom and shape of the loaf.  Despite the great blisters, I wonder if I allowed sufficient fermentation.  I had to cut final bench proof short because of life getting in the way of baking LOL.

George bakes in Barbados's picture
George bakes in...

Hey, fellow bakers!

I just felt so compelled to share a small moment I had in baking baguettes.

I have to admit I was terrified to start my baking adventures with the baguette for fear of a high hydration dough—something I have never had to work with. Prior to making baguettes, I have made challah (not a total disaster), brioche hot cross buns (these went well!) and milk buns (probably my fave). As great as these enriched breads were, I have always had a soft spot for lean breads—I fondly remember the days of my mother picking up a (supermarket—I know, but it’s all we had in Barbados in those days) baguette and joining me devouring.

I said I would attempt to make it myself and have to admit, it turned out alright! Would love to hear your thoughts or any feedback.

I used a 73% hydration dough with baker’s flour (11.4%) and some spelt flour. Since I have a sourdough starter going, I went for a sourdough baguette—I know, perhaps not the most traditional but I love the slight tang. This was the first time I made a lean dough or even a sourdough, far less one of this hydration level.

I have to work on my shaping and more importantly, my scoring. I used a fresh razor blade but found it wasn’t slicing cleanly—kept snagging. I imagine a lame would probably make it easier to slice into the dough? Also, these were baked on a cast iron griddle in the oven since I don’t own a baking stone or steel (though I do plan to buy one!). Each loaf was 250g but wished I had made them a bit smaller since the griddle is only about 14”. I also used steam generated from lava rocks and wet towels in a gas oven.

They had a nice crackly crust, a chewy inside—really nice. Is it normal for the crust to be less “crunchy/crusty” after a few hours? I do live in a very humid climate. I was wondering if maybe the crust is too thick? If it is, what can I do to correct? I did bake these at 500F—thinking I should have dropped to 475 for 20 min.

I am pretty proud and think they turned out nice but I look forward to hearing what you all may say.Fresh from the oven

Crumb and crust

justkeepswimming's picture

I used the same recipe as last time (see blog with details here), but used DanAyo's procedure for baking artisan bread in a loaf pan (his helpful thread is here). 

A "Cliff's Notes" version of what I did, beginning last night (started levain build before bed) thru today: 

Built levain, mixed dough, kneaded 10 min, rested dough 10 min (during clean up), shaped, rose in pan 3.5 hours (Aliquot at ~ 70% increase), baked at 425F (edit, in a 8 in x 4 in pan) for 40 min to internal temp of 208. Now it's cooling, crumb shot tomorrow. 

It was certainly easier and required less babysitting or watching. For everyday sourdough sandwich bread, this couldn't be much easier! My freezer needs replenishing, I may do a whole wheat loaf in a day or so. And next time I may  score it to control where it opens a little better. (That split at the top of where the pan was goes all the way around the loaf.)

And for anyone interested in trying spelt flour, I am currently using this sprouted spelt flour. I found it at our local Sprouts market. I usually prefer to mill my own but decided on a whim to give this a try. My starter really loves it! 

Edit to add crumb shot. Not too bad, though I think the hearth bake for this recipe that I did a few days ago had a little better crumb. The crumb on this one is kind of smooshed on the bottom and a little up the sides of the loaf.

My guess (from the split around the top of the loaf, and the top crust is drier than usual) is the crust set before oven spring was finished. It tastes great - a nice chew, not crumbly at all, and made our late PB&J lunch quite nice. I will definitely do this again, it really simplifies things. Next time I'll try spritzing it with water, &/or scoring before baking. All in all, a successful experiment!


P. J. Smith's picture
P. J. Smith

Inspired from Jasons Quick Ciabatta, (I've made dozens and dozens of times), I started experimenting with my discard. I've made Ciabatta using Peter Reinharts Biga, Poolish, Jasons Quick Ciabatta, to name a few. Jasons is nice because it's quick, but lacks flavor. Peters is nice because it nails the flavor but takes much time. (Something that's not available to me anymore) This is the best of both worlds. 

When time ran short, I still maintained a twice a day feeding schedule of The Darwin Starter, but was unable to use him proper and consequently, my discard started to get out of control. Thinking about Peters Poolish/Biga, I dumped 200 grams of Darwin into my mixing bowl, knocked off 100 grams each of flour and water from Jasons Ciabatta and used warm water to offset the chill from The Darwin.

Mixing The Darwin, flour and yeast with a plastic bowl scraper then slowly incorporating the water, letting it autolyse for 15 minutes, adding the salt then aggressively mixing it, has proved to be the most efficient way for me to make this. It took 10 minutes of mixing with the paddle on 6, then another 2 minutes with the dough hook on 6 to have it ready to proof. This is where you need to be patient. I don't go so much by double or triple as I'm using a bowl and can't tell how much it's risen. What I do look for is a big,bubbly mess of slop that almost looks alive in the bowl. At this point The fun begins.

There is no "Iron Fist Velvet Glove" phase in this bake as frankly, I have no desire to fondle this mess. I don't want to Degas the dough. So I use a bench knife to shape and after a 45 minute rise, I place parchment paper next to the loaf and use my bench knives to "flip" the dough on the parchment paper. Slide my peeler under the paper, load it on the steel and 20 minutes later, it's done.

The oven is set up for steam, pictures below. I preheat it at 550 deg and after I load it, drop it to 500 deg. After 10 minutes, I pull my steam pans out, turn the loafs 180 deg and drop the oven to 450. 

From start to finish is between 4-5 hours and is without a doubt the best tasting ciabatta I've ever had, let alone made. Think lazy mans Poolish. (or time challenged)


200g 100% Hydration (Liquid) Discard

400g KABF

375g Warm Water 95-100deg

2 tsp. Instant yeast

15g Salt


1. In mixer bowl, add discard, flour and yeast. Lightly mix discard and flour with a spoon until discard is well mixed in.


2. Mixing on "Stir" add 1/2 the water and mix until incorporated. Add a bit more water, mix until incorporated. Do this in increments until all the water is incorporated and you have a wet mess.


3. Autolyse, (let sit) for 15 minutes.

4. Stir in the salt with the mixer on low. Once incorporated, crank it up to 6. In about 10 minutes, it will start pulling away from the sides and gathering up on the paddle. Switch to the dough hook and with it on 6, mix another 2 minutes or until it starts climbing the hook and pulling away from the sides.

Once it pulls away from the sides, "Pour the dough into a bowl sprayed with oil". And by pour, I mean literally pour the dough into the bowl. Cover with plastic and wait about 2.5 hours.

5. After roughly 2.5 hours or when your dough looks like it's alive,

Pour this living thing onto a well floured surface, being careful not to de-gas it.

Divide into 2 pieces and shape with an oiled bench knife. There is no need to touch the dough with your hands, simply split the dough and shape it using the bench knife into two loafs. (or 4 smaller loafs)


Scrape the excess flour up under the loafs,

flour the loafs well and cover loosely for about 45 minutes. 

6. In the meantime, setup your oven with a steam pan or two and your steel/stone and preheat as high as it will go. Mine preheats to 550 for 45 min - 1 hr.

7. Sprinkle Corn Meal or Semolina on the top of the loafs and using a couple of Bench Knifes, flip the loafs onto some Parchment paper. (The top is now the  bottom) Gently reshape the loafs by pressing and dragging the bench knife alongside the loafs)

Load the loafs onto your Peel

Slide onto your steel/stone, pour hot water into your steamer pan and drop the oven temp to 500 deg.

After 10 minutes, open the door, rotate the loafs 180 degrees, (I use a couple of gloves and handle the loafs directly, it's faster), drop the temp down to 450 degrees and give it another 10 minutes ish.

Put on a rack and cool.

Cool and Slice to serve.

 Hope you enjoy this, I certainly do. :)


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