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Shiao-Ping's picture

Banana Pain au Levain

I am not a fan of bananas but every now and then for my kids I make banana muffins, banana bread (quick bread), banana pancakes and cakes, and banana milk shake and smoothie just to remind myself why people like bananas.  Whenever the bananas in my house have gone sesame (ie, growing freckles), the motherly cook's instincts in me start eyeing on them.  I never force my kids to eat any fruit or vegetables.  That's why the house ends up having so many unlikely combinations of chutney and jams.

Now, I have not come across bananas in a savory, or at least non-sweet, combination with flour.  What if I inject that lovely banana flavor (not to me!) into the crumb of a sourdough bread and use it for sandwiches or just toasts?  Would it work?  No harm trying.

Step one:  I started with four very large ripe bananas (475 grams).  My idea was to use bananas as hydration for final dough.  To puree bananas in my blender efficiently, I need to add some sort of liquid, and I chose to add 20% of banana weight in water (95 grams).  I got 570 grams of banana puree.  In addition to that, I had 100 g of diced banana to put in separately.

Step two:  To decide on a dough hydration percentage.  I picked 65%.  For this I needed to make an assumption as to the solids to liquid ratio in the bananas - my guesses were 35% to 65% (like pumpkin). 

Step three:  To calculate how much flour and starter that I would need for the given amount of banana puree.

Step four:  To work back to see if the figures match up before starting on the dough.  

Well, was I in a hurry?  I didn't go through Step Four properly. Immediately after I got the preliminary flour and starter figures, I poured my banana puree over the starter eagerly and began mixing!! 


The formula that I used is as follows:

Formula for Banana Pain au Levain 

  • 570 g mature starter at 75% hydration (5% rye flour)
  • 570 g flour (5% rye and the balance white flour)
  • 570 g banana puree (made up of 475 g banana and 95 g of water)
  • 100 g extra banana diced
  • 18 g salt

Total dough weight was 1.8 kg and approximate dough hydration was 80% (not 65% as I set out to do)**!! 

**Assuming bananas were 65% liquid, total dough hydration from the above formula was:

  • (475 + 100) x 65% = 374, being hydration from bananas
  • 374 + 95 = 469, being hydration from banana plus water added to make up the banana puree
  • 570 / 175% x 75% = 244, being water content in starter
  • 244 + 469 = 713, being total hydration
  • 570 / 175% x 100% = 326, being flour content in starter
  • 326 + 570 = 896, being total flour
  • 713 / 896 = 80%, being total dough hydration

No wonder the dough felt very wet and sticky and 3 sets of stretch & folds were needed during bulk fermentation for dough strength.  This dough was very difficult to shape.  An ample dusting of flour on the work bench and quick, swift movement and minimalist handling during shaping were necessary.


  1. Bulk fermentation 2 + 1/2 hours with 3 sets of stretch & folds of 30 - 40 strokes each, including autolyse of 20 minutes.
  2. Divide into two doughs of 900 g each.
  3. Proof for 2 hours.
  4. Retard in the refrigerator for 10 hours (I found with this recipe that the retarding process was essential because during the first few hours of the fermentation the dough appeared very sluggish.  It was almost as if my starter was finding it tough adjusting to bananas, but in any event, after many hours of retardation in the fridge, the dough rose nicely.)
  5. Bake with steam at 210C / 410F (lower temperature than usual due to sugar content in bananas) for 20 minutes then another 25 minutes at 190C / 375F (Note: I baked one dough at a time. Lower heat and longer baking appear to be the way to go. Under higher temperature, the crust would just burn.)








My daughter said this bread smells heavenly-banana.  I don't know if that is possible but I have to admit that, for a person who doesn't like to eat banana, I find this sourdough very delightful.  It is incredibly moist - a slice of this bread on your palm weighs heavily.   The effect of bananas on dough is probably not dissimilar to potatoes on dough.  It is also very chewy and sour (at least medium strength of sourness to me).  There was no trace of the sweetness from bananas left in the bread. 

My son had a great idea - he spread peanut paste on a slice of this bread and grilled it.  It tastes amazing:



Well, if you are interested to try this formula, I would suggest a lower hydration for easier shaping and handling of the dough.  Below I calculate for you an approx. 72% hydration dough formula for a dough weight of 864 grams:

Formula for Banana Pain au Levain @ approx. 72% dough hydration

  • 285 g starter @75% hydration
  • 285 g flour (5%, or 14 g, rye flour and the balance 271 g white flour)
  • 285 g banana puree (made up of 245 g banana and 40 g water)
  • 9 g salt

If it is done right, I believe the simplicity of this formula allows the natural flavor of fermented flour come through and it is in the spirit of what Pain au Levain is about.


Happy baking!


dmsnyder's picture

Pain de Campagne







The formula for this bâtard is derived from that for Anis Bouabsa's baguettes, as shared with TFL by Janedo. Jane prompted me to add some sourdough starter, and this resulted in a big improvement, to my taste. We had also discussed adding some rye flour to the dough. Jane said she and her family really liked the result. The addition of rye and sourdough makes this more like a pain de campagne, which is traditionally shaped as a boule or  bâtard. The result of my mental meandering follows:



Active starter ........................100 gms

KAF French Style Flour.......450 gms

Guisto's Rye Flour..................50 gms

Water......................................370 gms

Instant yeast............................1/4 tsp

Salt............................................10 gms



In a large bowl, mix the active starter with the water to dissolve it. Add the flours and stir to form a shaggy mass. Cover tightly and let rest (autolyse) for 20 minutes.

Sprinkle the yeast over the dough and mix with a plastic scraper. Then sprinkle the salt over the dough and mix.

Using the plastic scraper, stretch and fold the dough 20 times, rotating the bowl 1/5 turn between each stroke. Cover tightly. Repeat this stretch and fold procedure 20 minutes later and, again, after another 20 minutes.



After the third series of stretches and folds, scape the dough into a lightly oiled 2 quart/2 liter container and cover tightly. (I use a 2 quart glass measuring pitcher with a tightly fitting plastic lid manufactured by Anchor Glass.) Immediately place in the refrigerator and leave it there for 21 hours. (In this time, my dough doubles in volume and is full of bubbles. YMMV.)


Dividing and Shaping

(I chose to make one very large bâtard, but you could divide the dough into 2 or 3 pieces and make smaller bâtards, boules or baguettes. Or, you could just cut the dough and not shape it further to make pains rustiques.)

Take the dough out of the refrigerator and scrape it gently onto a lightly floured work surface. Gently pat it into a rectangle. To pre-shape for  a bâtard, fold the near edge up just past the center of the dough and seal the edge by gently pressing the two layers together with the ulnar (little finger) edge of your hand or the heel of your hand, whichever works best for you. Then, bring the far edge of the dough gently just over the sealed edge and seal the new seam as described.

Cover the dough with plastic wrap and/or a kitchen towel and let it rest for 30-60 minutes, with the seams facing up. (The time will depend on ambient temperature and how active your starter is. The dough should have risen slightly, but not much.)

To shape a bâtard, fold the near edge of the dough and seal the edge, as before. Now, take the far edge of the dough and bring it towards you all the way to the work surface and seal the seam with the heel of your hand. Rotate the loaf gently toward you 1/4 turn so the last seam you formed is against the work surface and roll the loaf back and forth, with minimal downward pressure, to further seal the seam. Then, with the palms of both hands resting softly on the loaf, roll it back and forth to shape a bâtard. Start with both hands in the middle of the loaf and move them outward as you roll the loaf, slightly increasing the pressure as you move outward, so the bâtard ends up with the middle highest and the ends pointed .


Preheating the oven

Place a baking stone on the middle rack and both a cast iron skillet and a metal loaf pan (or equivalent receptacles of your choosing) on the bottom shelf.  Heat the oven to 500F. (I like to pre-heat the baking stone for an hour. I think I get better oven spring. Since I expected a 30 minute rest after pre-shaping and a 45 minute proofing, I turned on the oven 15 minutes after I had pre-shaped the loaf.) I put a kettle of water to boil 10 minutes before baking.



After shaping the loaf, transfer it to parchment paper liberally dusted with semolina. Cover the loaf with plastic wrap and/or a kitchen towel. Proof until the loaf has expanded to about 1-1/2 times it's original size. (This turned out to be 30 minutes for me.) Do not over-proof, if you want good oven-spring and bloom!



Put about a cup full of ice cubes in the loaf pan on the bottom shelf of the oven and close the door.

Slip a peel or cookie sheet under the parchment paper holding the loaf. Uncover the loaf. Score it. (The bâtard was scored with a serrated tomato knife. The knife was held with its blade at about a 30 degree angle to the surface of the loaf. One swift end-to-end cut was made, about 1/2 inch deep.)

Transfer the loaf and parchment paper to the baking stone, pour one cup of boiling water into the skillet, and close the oven door. Turn the oven down to 460F.

After 15 minutes, remove the loaf pan and the skillet from the oven. Rotate the loaf 180 degrees, if it is browning unevenly. Close the oven door.

Bake for another 15 minutes, then remove the loaf and place on a cooling rack. Check for doneness. (Nice crust color. Internal temperature of at least 205F. Hollow sound when you thump the bottom of the loaf.) If necessary, return to loaf to the oven to bake longer.



Cool on a rack for two hours before slicing.



I got very good oven spring and bloom. This loaf has an ear by which you could carry it around. It sang to me while cooling. The crust is nice and crunchy. The crumb is well aerated and almost "fluffy" in texture, but with tender chewiness. The taste is just plain good. It is minimally sour. Based on my half-vast experience, I'd say it is fairly representative of a French Pain de Campagne, the major difference being that it is less dense than the ones I recall. 

 This is, for me, not merely a good "novelty" bread. It could join San Francisco Sourdough and Jewish Sour Rye as an "everyday" bread I would enjoy having all the time.  The method is good for those of us who work outside the home. It can be mixed in the evening and baked in time for a late dinner the next night. 




dmsnyder's picture

Greenstein's Sourdough Rye (Rye Sour) care and feeding, illustrated

Eagleswings' struggles with a rye starter and the current interest in Jewish sour rye and corn bread have prompted me to re-post my response regarding the care and feeding of rye sour. After making sour rye breads last weekend, I took some photos of my rye sour refreshment which might be helpful to those undertaking rye bread baking for the first time.

 The photos that follow illustrate the progression of each stage's ripening. The volume of the sour is, of course, increased with each stage.


DMSnyder's adaptation of Greenstein's Rye Sour:

There are 3 "stages" to make a sour ready to use in a rye bread recipe. You can refrigerate overnight after any of the stages. If you do refrigerate it, use warm water in the next build. The mature sour will probaby be okay to use for a couple of days, but I try to time it to spend no longer that 12 hours since the last feeding. If you have kept it longer under refrigeration, it should be refreshed.


Stage 1:

50 gms of Rye sour refreshed with 100 gms water and 75 gms rye flour

50 gms of Rye sour refreshed with 100 gms water and 75 gms rye flour, mixed into a paste, scraped down and smoothed over.



Refreshed rye sour with 25 gms (1/4 cup) rye flour sprinkled over the surface.

Refreshed rye sour with 25 gms (1/4 cup) rye flour sprinkled over the surface. This prevents drying out. Cover airtight (more or less) to ripen.



Ripening refreshed rye sour, starting to rise and form a dome, spreading the dry rye flour.

Ripening refreshed rye sour after 3 hours or so, starting to rise and form a dome, spreading the dry rye flour. Keep covered. Be patient.



Ripening refreshed rye sour. Expanded further with more pronounced spreading of dry flour.

Ripening refreshed rye sour after 4-5 hours. Expanded further with more pronounced spreading of dry flour. 


Fully ripe rye sour. This should be used immediately. If you are not ready for it, I have refrigerated it overnight. What you don't want is for fermentation to continue until the sour collapses.

Stage 2:
All of the Stage 1 starter
1/2 cup water
3/4 cup rye flour

Mix thoroughly into a thick paste. Scrape down and smooth the surface.

Sprinkle 1/4 cup of rye flour all over the surface. Cover the bowl and let rise for 4-8 hours or untile the dry rye on the surface has spread into "continents" and the surface has domed. Don't wait until it collapses.

Stage 3:
All of the Stage 1 starter
1/2 cup of water
1 cup of rye flour.

You may have to transfer this to a larger bowl. Mix thoroughly into a thicker paste - It should pull away from the sides of the bowl as you mix it. If it is too thin, you can add more rye flour until it is more "dough-like." Cover the starter and let it rise 4-8 hours. It should nearly double in volume and be bubbly.

It's now ready to use to make rye bread.

Greenstein advises to keep the starter refrigerated and stir the starter every 3-4 days and refresh it every 10-12 days by throwing out half of it and mixing in "equal amounts of flour and water."

Greenstein says, if you are going to refrigerate the sour for any length of time, keep it in a covered container in the refrigerator and float a layer of water over it. (I don't generally do the water cover trick.)

I hope this helps some one.


JMonkey's picture

Finally -- a 100% whole grain hearth bread I'm proud of

As many of you know, I've been questing for a tasty, open crumb, 100% whole grain hearth bread for a long, long time now.

This weekend, I finally achieved my goal.

Nice open crumb, creamy texture, tangy and flavorful crumb, appealing slashes, crunchy crust.

Here's how I made it, and, to be truthful, it was mostly on a whim. The day before, I'd made some whole wheat sourdough sandwich bread, and had about 80 grams of starter left over. I didn't have time, really, to feed it, so I popped it in the fridge figuring I'd do something with it later.

The next evening, as I was thinking about what to cook for a visit from my folks (they'd come all the way from Atlanta, so I wanted something nice), I thought, "Why not try something akin to CrumbBum's miche?"

So here's what I did:

  • 40 grams of whole wheat starter at 60% hydration (Use 50 grams if at 100% hydration)
  • 375 grams water
  • 10 grams salt
  • 300 grams whole wheat flour
  • 150 grams whole spelt flour
  • 50 grams whole rye flour
So basically, its roughly 5 percent of flour in the starter, with a 60-30-10 wheat / spelt / rye flour combination at 75% hydration.

I mixed the starter into the water, added the salt until it was dissolved, and then stirred in the flour. I then did a stretch and fold at one hour, and then two more at half hour intervals. After the last stretch and fold, I shaped it into a ball, and let it sit overnight.

It's pretty chilly in our house at night, getting down to 63 degrees F, so your mileage may very, but the dough was ready to shape after about 12 hours. I preshaped it into a ball, shaped the dough into a batard after a 15 minute rest, wrapped it in baker's linen and then let it rise at 64 degrees for about 3.5 hours. After that, a few slashes and into a hot oven at 450 for 35 minutes.

I think the final piece that came into place for me was shaping gently, but firmly. And I suspect that the long fermentation helped with both flavor and texture. Anyway, I hope I can repeat this success.
Dave's picture

Red Fife x 4 = Awesomeness!!! Matching my work schedule

Hey everybody,

Just baked my first batch of 4. Turned out pretty good. Happy with results.

So check this out. I'm in Canadian Tire a couple of weeks ago, and like any baking/cooking geek I always stop by the kitchen section. Well luck would have it they were having a major sale on all kinds of stuff. That could be good...or it could be bad for the bank account. So I stop by the dutch oven oven section and low and behold, there is a 70% off sale. So I picked up a Cuisinart 3qt enamel on cast iron dutch oven for $49.99. Regular $169.99. What a steal! So then I decided not only do I need 1, but I think I need 8 of them!! So the deal was done. I can fit 8 of them in my home oven. Four on top and 4 on the bottom. Time to get serious!

So I just baked my first experiment of 4 boules. Next step is going to be 8. They turned out great. Only thing is the bottom ones ended up a little darker on the bottom of the loaf. I think to fix that I'm going to lay some tin foil down to deflect the heat from the bottom dutch ovens.




















































The great thing about this recipe is I've made it to match my work schedule. I've been seeing on the forum lately, people asking for recipe's to match their work schedule. So here is an example of mine and hope this helps out some people.


Organic Bread Flour                                                 1200g         60%

Organic Whole Grain Stone Ground Red Fife           600g          30%

Starter @ 100% hydration (Organic Bread Flour)      400g          20%

Water                                                                        1100g         55%

Salt                                                                             40g            2%


Total Flour                                                                 2000g        100%

Total Water                                                               1300g          65%


Day one:

1. 6:00am feed starter and keep out at room temp.

2. Go to work!

3. Get home. 4:00pm mix flour and water together. Autolyse for 1 hour.

4. Mix flour, starter and salt. Rest for 10 minutes.

5. Dump out of bowl. Do 1 stretch and fold, cover and rest for 20 minutes.

6. Continue to do 5 more stretch and folds with 20 minute rest periods in between. Basically 1 stretch and fold every 20 minutes. Works out to be 6 stretch and folds within 2 hours.

7. Put in bowl and bulk rise at room temp for 2 hours.

8. Put in fridge and retard until I get home from work next day. About 20-22 hours.

Day 2:

1. Take out of fridge, dump out on counter, cut four equal pieces (I scaled mine at around 800g each), and place in bannetton's. Proof for about 1.5 hours (sometimes a little more, sometimes a little less).

2. Pre-heat dutch ovens for about an hour to 500 degrees.

3. Take out dutch ovens, flip dough out of bannetton's into your hand, place in dutch ovens, score loafs, place dutch ovens with lid on back in oven and bake at 500 degrees for 20 minutes.

4. After 20 minutes take lids off dutch ovens and bake for an additional 15-30 minutes at 375 degrees.

5. When ready take out of dutch ovens and let cool overnight

Day 3:

1. ENJOY!!


This recipe allows me to finish prep by 10-10:30pm on day 1, and finish baking around 7-8:00pm on day 2. So far it has always been consistent results.

My next challenge will be to use all 8 dutch ovens at once!! EXCITING!!

I will post my results for y'all when that happens!

Cheers! And happy baking!

limmitedbaking's picture

Polenta Pepita Sourdough

Hi all back to posting after a long hiatus. Inspired by the numerous Tartine 3 breads that have been popping up over thefreshloaf and reminded by a post that is filed under my to-bake list, I decided to make a Polenta Pepita Sourdough over the weekend. 

I mainly followed the Marcus's recipe here: but instead of soaking in boiling water, I cooked up a batch of polenta by stirring it over the stovetop over low heat. Here's my take on it:



1 kg

Bread Flour






Mature sourdough culture






Cooked Polenta












Final dough



Bread Flour



Whole Wheat Flour (15%)






Salt (2%)



Cooked Polenta (15%)



Sunflower Seeds (10%)









Mix all and autolyse for 20 minutes. 
Bulk ferment for 3 hours with 4 S&F at 20 minutes interval.
Proof for 1.5 hours and bake at 230C for 40 minutes.

I think the difference between the two approaches show in the final result. The cooked polenta totally disappeared into the crumb resulting in a softer texture bread but no noticeable specks of polenta. My bread's crumb turned out slightly off yellow rather than the yellow in Marcus's picture. There is no gritty bite of the polenta too.

But otherwise the texture was good with a nice slight chew and sweetness probably from the cooked grains. Next time, I will further bump up the polenta to 20% and try the soaking method instead. Now off to trying other porridge breads!


hanseata's picture

Dan Lepard's Pumpkin Whey Bread

I'm baking a lot, but, since it's summer, mostly for sale.

And then there are other time consuming projects like painting windows (with some tireless mosquitoes for company), massaging my husband's cramped neck (after installing aforementioned windows), and hunting for those friggin' Japanese beetles that turn my raspberry leaves into lace.

  Beetle "Lace"

My list of "Equal Opportunity Breads" still waits for more items to be checked off - I did some more, but got a bit listless after a few stubborn loaves just didn't turn out the way I liked.

But in a recent weekend edition of "The Guardian", master baker Dan Lepard published an interesting bread made with whey instead of water. From my last batch of Greek yogurt I had a lot of whey left over, sitting in my fridge, while I wondered what to do with it.

Pumpkin Whey Bread was just what I was looking for!

Pumpkin, Pumpkin Seeds and Whey - main ingredients for this autumn loaf

Dan Lepard cooked fresh butternut squash for his puree, but here in the US good quality canned pumpkin is readily available, and preparing and draining pumpkin puree a time consuming process.

I always have a supply of pumpkin puree in my pantry (to satisfy a sudden craving for pumpkin pancakes or pumpkin chocolate chip muffins). But for those who don't (or prefer making their own), here is a link to the procedure.

The dough looks a bit dry still, but will be soft and a bit sticky after brief kneading

What I like about Lepard's loaves is his minimalistic approach to kneading. Much as I admire Richard Bertinet's breads: compare his 30-minute-complete-upper-arm-workout to Lepards 10 seconds of gentle handling.

Normally I would use a stand mixer, but this soft dough can be easily (and less fussy) made by hand.

Threatening dough overflow - next time I will reduce the yeast!

Preferring longer fermentation I mixed the dough the day before, and let it slowly rise overnight in the fridge. It rose so mightily that it almost popped the lid. A sure sign that the instant yeast can be safely reduced to 5 grams down from the 7 grams the recipe requires. 

And, (for the good conscience) I substituted some of the white flour with whole wheat.

Ready for the oven

My Pumpkin Whey Bread turned out really nice. It had a delicate crisp crust, and a rich, dark golden crumb. Very flavorful, it is a true multi-purpose bread, and can be enjoyed with ham as well as jam. It is also good for toasting.

Stored in a brown paper bag, it kept fresh for several days.

Dan Lepard's formula you find HERE.



  • Use good quality canned pumpkin (like Libby's or One-Pie) instead of fresh
  • Reduce the amount of instant yeast from 7 g to 5 g
  • Substitute 100 g of the bread flour with white whole wheat flour
  • Cold bulk fermentation in the fridge overnight (remove 2 hours before shaping)

Striking gold with this wonderful tasty loaf!

Janetcook's picture

Honey Whole Wheat with Poppy Seeds and Lemon Zest

Sometimes there is a loaf that I just love baking.  This is such a loaf and I think it is due to the fact that it is a simple dough that has a luxurious feel to it - especially after it has fermented all night in the refrigerator.  It also has a wonderful aroma created by the lemon zest and the poppy seeds add a delightful texture and, I think, simply look spunky.

The original recipe if from Daniel Leader's book Bread Alone.  I found it after reading about one of the challenges posted here where the '3grandmas' were baking his lemon cake. All raved about its results. I prefer baking breads to cakes so this is what I ended up with.

I adapted his recipe to my sourdough starter, my use of whole grains and use of an overnight bulk ferment.

TOTAL FLOUR                                   860g

TOTAL WATER                                  677g                    79%

TOTAL PREFERMENTED FLOUR   129g                   15%

LEAVEN                                              219g                   26%



Hard White WW Flour                      731g                     85%

Water                                                  587g                    68%

Salt                                                        21g                    2.4%

Honey                                                   28g                    3.2%

Lemon Zest                                            8g                        1%

Poppy Seeds                                         21g                     2.4%



• Build leaven during the day.  I do 2 builds total each about 3 hours apart.

• Mix leaven, water and 3/4ths of the flour into a shaggy mass and let it sit for about an hour to allow the flour to hydrate and the gluten to develop a bit.

• Add remainder of the flour, honey, salt and the zest and knead on low until medium gluten devel. is reached. 

• Add poppy seeds.

• Knead until seeds are distributed evenly.

• Place dough in an oiled bowl, cover and allow it to sit at room temp. until it has expanded by about 25%

• Place in refrig. for the night.

• Allow dough to warm up for about 2 hours  the next morning.

• Shape and proof.

• Bake  (I have convection with steam so I pre-heat to 425°.  When bread is loaded I turn off the oven, steam and let it expand without heat for 10 minutes.  The remainder of the bake is then at 325° until internal temp. reaches approx 200°.)






The roll is lighter in color simply because the rolls were baked with the boules but, obviously,  they baked much more quickly.  They have a softer texture which my husband prefers while the boules have a crustier crust.

Our house now smells heavenly.


Sorry, no crumb shots.  Boules are for friends that I bake for.  Husband gets a couple of rolls.  They don't present much of a crumb shot......I can tell you the crumb is soft though.  Lemon conditions the grains and makes for a very soft crumb.

I will give you all a snow shot instead since we got 12" of much needed snow today.




Mebake's picture

illustration: Stretch and Fold in the Bowl

I thought i'd share my piece of illustration on the Stretch and fold in the bowl technique:



SylviaH's picture

Buns for Sandwiches

Nice recipe for some one day buns for sandwiches, hot dogs, or burgers.   Adapted from a Beth Hensperger recipe.  I had just written out the recipe with instructions and deleted the whole thing ; /   So here goes again!

8 oz. Spring Water

1 Large Egg

4 TBsp. soft unsalted Butter

2 TBsp. Sugar or Honey

15 oz. Bread Flour with extra to adjust hydration if needed.  I used Gold Medal Bread Flour on sale here for less than 2 bucks a 5 lb. bag.

1/4 cup King Arthur dry Milk Powder

1/4 cup mashed potato - I used a microwaved potato.  Fast and easy

1 1/2 tsp. sea salt

2 1/4 tsp. IADYeast

  1 egg yolk plus 2 Tbsp. water and 2 Tbsp. milk for glazing

   Sesame and Poppy seeds, springs of fresh Rosemary.

Add liquid ingredients to KA Mixer, add dry ingredients,  I sift my flour and dry  milk powder together.  The KA Dry Milk Powder tends to be sticky and can clump together and become hard if left with moisture for to I just always sift it with my flour..using a wisk or a wire scoop.  Mixed until shaggy adding more flour as needed to adjust hydration.  Cover and rest 25 minutes.  Knead until gluten formation just begins.  Stretch and folds 30 minutes apart until gluten has formed nice windowpane.  Pour out onto counter, shape even weighed rolls, I made 8.  Place on parchment lined pan and press down to shape buns.  I pressed a biscuit cutter nearly all the way through just for a little extra pattern on rolls.  Let rise till nearly double.  Glaze and sprinkle on seeds.  Baked 350F in a convection oven setting till nicely browned..about 20-25 minutes.



                                             The pattern from the biscuit cutter was not very pronouned..



                                                          I called these my Aussie Sandwiches : )