The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

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Blog Writer: Jenna

Photographer and documenter of evidence: Spencer

Chemist/Baker: Sheffield

Cellular Respiration  

The equation for cellular respiration is Glucose + oxygen  = water and CO2 + Oxygen.  Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria of the cells.  Cellular respiration is important in the bread making process so that bread can rise.  The reaction creates the products water and CO2.  The creation of CO2 during this reaction creates “bubbles” which is the reason for why there are holes in the bread. Wheat is a plant that is used in bread.  While the wheat was alive it went through photosynthesis, creating the products: glucose and water, from the reactants: sunlight, water, and CO2.  The bread needs the glucose from photosynthesis to go through cellular respiration to make CO2 and the bread rise.

Anaerobic Respiration vs Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic respiration is cellular respiration where oxygen is not present.  Aerobic respiration is cellular respiration where oxygen is present.  With Anaerobic respiration, humans can undergo lactic acid fermentation while yeast goes through alcoholic fermentation.  Yeast is a single celled fungi that can go through alcoholic fermentation which causes the bread to rise.  This is important for bread making so that CO2 is released making the bread rise.

CO2 Cycle

Bread releases CO2 when exposed to heat. This CO2 is then converted back into oxygen through photosynthesis. This is how the process of making bread falls into the carbon cycle.  

Design rationale

We chose this recipe because of its simplicity.  This was our first time making bread so we wanted to do a recipe that wouldn’t be too difficult.  There are no special ingredients or methods for this recipe that make it too hard.



  • 1 tablespoon white sugar

  • 2 1/2 teaspoons (1 package) yeast

  • 1 cup lukewarm water

  • 2 1/2 cups (11 1/4 oz) all purpose flour

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil

  • 1. Add the sugar and yeast to the water in your measuring cup and stir to combine. If you're using anything except and instant yeast, let it sit for 5 to 10 minutes, or until the mixture is lively and bubbly. If it's instant yeast, you can continue without proofing, or let it proof to ease your mind that the yeast is alive—your choice.

  • 2. Put the flour and salt into a medium bowl, and stir to distribute salt.

  • 3. Add the water/yeast mixture to the the bowl with the flour, and stir to combine all the ingredients.

  • 4. Sprinkle some flour on your countertop and dump the dough mixture onto the counter. Knead for a minute or two, adding flour as necessary to keep it from sticking. You don't need to knead until the dough is stretchy and elastic - just knead until it's a nice cohesive mixture and not a lumpy, sticky, blobby mess. Form it into a ball.

  • 5. Drizzle the olive oil into a zip-top bag and plop the dough into the bag. Make sure the dough is completely coated with olive oil, zip the top, and stash it in the refrigerator overnight.

  • 6. The next day, take the bag out of the fridge and massage it a bit, still in the bag, to mash out all the bubbles in the dough. You may need to open the bag to let the air out, but reseal it after.

  • 7. Leave the bag on the countertop until the dough has come to room temperature, about an hour. It will rise and expand a bit during that time.

  • 8. Preheat the oven to 350°F. Sprinkle some cornmeal on the bottom of a loaf pan.

  • 9. Sprinkle some flour on your counter top, and dump the dough onto the counter. You don't need to squeeze every bit of olive oil out of the bag, but don't try to hold it back, either.

  • 10. Knead and fold it a bit to incorporate the olive oil into the dough, then form the dough into a log that will fit into your loaf pan.

  • 11. Put the loaf into the pan, cover the pan with plastic wrap, and let it rise until it has at least doubled in size. I used an 8 1/2-by-4 1/2 pan and let it rise until it was slightly higher than the pan.

  • 12. Remove the plastic wrap, slash the top, and bake at 350 degrees for 35 to 40 minutes, until the bread is golden brown and the loaf sounds hollow when tapped.

  • 13. Let it cool completely on a rack before slicing.

Recipe Reflection

Our recipe was successful, there wasn’t anything special about it but it was still good.  The only change we had to make to make the recipe work well was to add some flour so that the dough was not liquid.

Yeast-  The yeast is used to create CO2 and make the bread rise

Flour- provides the base for the bread. Flour contains proteins that when it is mixed with liquids, it creates gluten.  The gluten is a necessary part of bread because it is a rubbery substance that gives the dough structure and elasticity.

Sugar- the sugar is used as food for the yeast. Sugar is also used for taste if the dough has enough flour in it.  

Oil-  The oil is used to control texture and help with the taste.  Oil keeps the dough from being too elastic.

Salt- Salt tightens the gluten structure and adding strength to dough.  Salt slows down fermentation, allowing the bread to hold onto the CO2 produced.

Water- water is used for creating gluten.  The water also distributes heat while cooking.  The warm water at the beginning activates the yeast, starting the process of alcoholic fermentation

Cinnamon01111's picture


Cellular Respiration  

  • C6H12O6 + O2  →  CO2 + H2o + ATP

  • Process occurs in the Mitochondria

  • Why is it important in bread making: When yeast becomes activated, it undergoes cellular respiration. The yeast will undergo anaerobic respiration called alcoholic fermentation; the yeast will produce CO2 as well as alcohol. During alcoholic fermentation, the yeast creates Co2 which allows the bread to rise. However, as the food (sugar) that feeds our yeast run out our yeast will start to die and the bread will start to deflate. In general cellular respiration in the yeast is what allows our bread to rise.

  • Where do plants fall into this (wheat in the bread)

    • Wheat used for making flour has a lot of glucose. When kneading dough the glucose will form a structure that is responsible for capturing the gas (CO2) released from the yeast.

Anaerobic Respiration vs Aerobic Respiration

  • Aerobic Respiration - cellular respiration when oxygen is present

  • Anaerobic Respiration - cellular respiration when oxygen is not present

    • Lactic Acid Fermentation (Humans) - Produces lactic acid which causes muscles to feel fatigued and painful

    • Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeast) - Produces alcohol and CO2

  • Yeast V. Humans

    • Lactic Acid fermentation occurs in human cells while alcoholic fermentation occurs in plant and yeast cells. Both processes are examples of anaerobic respiration.

  • Alcohol fermentation is important in bread making because it changes the dough from a rough dense mass into a smooth, extensible dough with good gas holding properties; which you want when making bread.

CO2 Cycle

  • How does bread making fall into the carbon cycle  

    • During bread making, in order for the bread to rise, CO2  must be released by the yeast via cellular respiration. In real life this CO2 would be released into the atmosphere and be available for plants to use.

Design rationale for recipe

  • Yeast

    • Yeast is a type of fungi that undergo cellular respiration under ideal conditions. This process is what allows the bread to rise.

  • Warm water

    • Warm water (between 120-130 degrees) is what will activate the yeast, and allow it to start undergoing cellular respiration.

  • Flour

    • Flour has a lot of gludin and glaidin, which mixed with water will form glucose. When kneading dough the glucose will form a structure that is responsible for capturing the gas (CO2) released from the yeast.

    • Also there is a lot of starch in flour, and when an enzyme in the flour reacts with that starch a sugar is released. The yeast will feed on this sugar.

  • Salt

    • Salt is used to hold on to the carbon dioxide that is created during anaerobic fermentation, and helps to strengthen the dough.

  • Fat

    • Fats such as oil and butter are used to keep the dough from getting too elastic. A bread with lots of elasticity will be really chewy, and not soft.

  • Sugar

    • The sugar will help to feed the yeast and keep them alive as they undergo cellular respiration.

  • Brown sugar, chocolate chips, cinnamon

    • Enhanced taste of recipe

Recipe Reflection

  • How successful was your recipe?  Reflect on research, ingredient choice and results

    • Our recipe was really successful. We ended up finding a recipe that made our bread soft, and not dry. We decided to add sugar, cinnamon, and chocolate chips last minute, but in the end those ingredients made our bread sweeter, and therefore better tasting. If we had to change anything, we would allow for the bread to rise for longer because we noticed that the bottom of the loaf was a lot denser than the top, and we think by letting the bread rise for longer the yeast could release more CO2 and make the bread even fluffier.


  • 1.5 cup flour

  • 1 ⅛ teaspoon yeast

  • ½ cup warm water

  • ½ teaspoon salt

  • 1 tablespoon white sugar

  • 1 tablespoon of canola oil

  • 1.5 tablespoon brown sugar

  • ½ teaspoons cinnamon

  • ⅓ cup chocolate chips

Pictures of Ingredients:

IMG_20170307_114544.jpgIMG_20170307_114753.jpgIMG_20170307_115433.jpgIMG_20170307_115803.jpgIMG_20170307_115603.jpgIMG_20170307_115929.jpgIMG_20170307_120037.jpgIMG_20170307_120533.jpgIMG_20170307_122213.jpg<--Our group

IMG_20170307_122049.jpg<--unbaked loaf

IMG_20170307_121532.jpg<--kneading the dough

IMG_20170308_121301.jpg<--baked loaf

IMG_20170307_121225.jpg<-- Unkneaded dough

IMG_20170307_120600.jpg<-- Mixing the dough

IMG_20170307_120631.jpg <-- The fat we used in our recipe

Blog Writer (Mansi)

  • Responsible for creating account

  • Writing what happens (procedure)

Photographer and documenter of evidence (Nick)

  • Responsible for assisting with the blog (why did you pick those ingredients)

  • Must capture picture evidence of process

Chemist/Baker (Emily)

  • Responsible for the supplies and kneading

  • Responsible for the science in the blog


BreadLover17's picture

Cinnamon Swirl Bread

Blog Writer: Ally

Photographer and documenter of evidence: Cade

Chemist/Baker: Chase



  • 2 tablespoons sugar

  • 1 cup warm water

  • 2½ teaspoons yeast

  • 2½ cups flour (add extra as needed)

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil

  • 2 tablespoons cinnamon

  • ½ cup white sugar



  • Mix the 2 tablespoons sugar with the warm water in a very large bowl. Add the yeast and do not stir. Let it sit until creamy, about 5 minutes. Add the oil, salt, and flour. Mix by hand, adding more flour as necessary until the dough forms a large, soft ball.

  • Flour a table or work surface and knead the bread for 5-10 minutes.

  • Place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl and brush the top with a little extra oil Cover the bowl with a damp towel and let the dough rise in a warm place for 1 hour...(30 minutes because lamp used) it should be very puffy.

  • Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Separate dough into 2 halves and roll into rectangles. (For more tight rolls in the bread, roll the dough thinner. For thicker softer rolls in the bread, roll thicker.)

  • Mix the cinnamon and sugar in a small bowl and sprinkle over each loaf. Be generous. Roll up the loaves tightly and let rest for a few minutes before putting in the oven.

  • Bake on a cookie sheet or baking stone for 30 minutes, or until it sounds hollow. When in doubt, over bake this one. It might look brown on the outside, but that's okay because the inside really needs to bake all the way to get the layers filled out. Let the bread cool before cutting into it, otherwise it has a tendency to sink down where you cut it.


Cellular Respiration:

The equation for cellular respiration is Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP

Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria.

It is important in bread making because without this reaction the bread would not rise.

Plants fall into this because we are eating the wheat in the bread which is part of the carbon cycle.


Anaerobic Respiration vs Aerobic Respiration:

Anaerobic respiration is without oxygen and Aerobic Respiration is with oxygen.

Yeast compare to humans because yeast cells are similar to human cells.  

This is important for bread making because cellular respiration is also used in the process of making bread rise.


Carbon Dioxide Cycle:

Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow. The carbon becomes part of the plant. Plants that die and are buried may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years. When humans burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.


Rationale for Recipe:

We used these ingredients because

Warm Water→ To activate or “wake up” the yeast

Yeast→ To make the bread rise

Salt→ Salt plays a role in tightening the gluten structure and adding strength to your dough

Olive oil→ It prevents the dough from getting too elastic, which controls texture. This elasticity change would also change the maximum air bubble size.

Flour→ Provides the gluten needed to make the bread

Sugar→ It helps make it soft and tender by absorbing some of the water and slowing down the formation of gluten strands. It feeds the yeast, resulting in a faster rise.

Cinnamon→ Mostly for flavor


Recipe Reflection: After making this bread we realized that our recipe worked really well with the ingredients we chose and that it overall tasted really good. All the ingredients worked together to make one successful product.


AfhsBread's picture

Garlic Bread Attempted

Blog Writer: Nina
Photographer and Documenter of Evidence: Margaret
Chemist/Baker: Nick


AnnaColeJasmine's picture


  • Measuring cups

  • Whisk/spoon

  • Bowls

  • Loaf pan

  • Small amounts of shortening/flour for kneading and rising dough


  • ½  package (1/8 ounce or ¾ tsp) active dry yeast

    • Yeast is used to make the bread rise

  • 1-⅛ cups warm water (110° to 115°)

    • Warm water activates the yeast

  • 1-½ tablespoons sugar

    • Sugar is added for flavor

  • ½ tablespoon salt

    • Salt is added for flavor (so the bread isn’t bland)

  • 1 tablespoon olive oil

    • To keep bread from becoming stale too quickly; freshens and tenderizes bread

  • 3-⅛ cups all-purpose flour

    • Flour is used for substance, the majority of the bread


  1. In a bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water

  2. Add sugar, salt, oil, and half of the flour (about 1-½ cups)

  3. Beat/mix until smooth

  4. Stir in remaining flour, ½ a cup at a time (last 1-⅝ cups); form soft dough

  5. Flour a clean surface

  6. Knead dough until smooth (approx. 5-7 minutes)

  7. Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise in a warm place until it doubles in size (approx. 30-45 minutes)

  8. Punch dough down, turn on a floured surface, shape dough into loaf

  9. Place in greased loaf pan

  10. Bake at 375° Fahrenheit for 30-35 minutes or until golden brown and bread sounds hollow when tapped

  11. Place loaves on wire rack to cool

  12. Enjoy!


Recipe Reflection:

The bread overall was really good, but it did not turn out as we thought it would. When we mixed warm water with the yeast, we expected the yeast to be activated, but when we got our bread back, there were no holes in our bread. This was because the yeast was not activated. If we could do this lab again, we would mix our sugar in with the yeast and water mixture so the sugar can help activate the yeast and make more carbon dioxide. 

Cellular Respiration:

Equation: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + ATP

Where: In the mitochondria of the cells/yeast cells

Importance: Cellular respiration is important because the reaction that occurs causes bread to rise and gives it it’s soft, puffy texture and it’s holes

Where do plants fall into this (wheat in the bread): Plants, like wheat, that are used to make bread, can provide the glucose and oxygen needed for cellular respiration.  

Anaerobic Respiration Vs. Aerobic Respiration:

Yeast vs. Humans: Yeast is a simple living being that functions practically the same way as human cells. Scientists have discovered that roughly half of the genes in yeast could be replaced by human cells.

Importance: Yeast respires and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Yeast used for leavening bread can either can be caught from the environment or produced commercially.

CO2 Cycle:

How does bread making fall into the CO2 cycle?: Humans eat bread and there is wheat involved in making the bread. The wheat is a plant, which does photosynthesis, and humans consume the bread, eating to live,  and release CO2 back into the atmosphere.

Maine18's picture

Hi all!  Here are a few recent(ish) bakes, dating back 3 or 4 months.   Starting with a batch of buttery Lion House rolls – a Holiday staple – and then a first attempt at Rugbrod, a Danish rye bread I’ve been a bit fixated on since we visited Scandinavia this past Summer.  I based the recipe on the formula in the New Nordic Cookbook I got for Christmas, subbing in levain instead of fresh yeast.  The texture was perfect, though the flavor needs some work – it had a couple odd/off notes, which I attribute to the dark beer I used in the recipe – will tweak next time and see how it changes. (Side note: would LOVE any suggestions of tried & true Danish-style Rugbrod recipes – there seems the tons of techniques out there, which can be overwhelming, and I’d love to learn from the crew on TFL).


The Rugbrod was also the first time I used my new grain mill to make the cracked rye, rye flour, and whole wheat flour, which was a ton of fun.  I’ve been talking about getting a flour mill for so long, but never pulled the trigger, largely because the Komo mills are pricey and firmly a “nice to have” toy.  For my birthday this year, though, my wife took matter in to her own hands, so now I have a whole new batch of variables to play with as I bake!  Below are a few "standard" levain loaves I baked with ~30% freshly milled whole wheat flour.


The next bake is a Detroit style pizza I made just this week, using Kenji’s recipe on Serious Eats.    Delicious, almost focaccia like pizza, though quite rich/filling – I can see making a full sheet pan of this for a party sometime, though I still favor a Neapolitan-style pizza all things being equal.


I’ll also include a couple bonus beverage shots, as I’ve recently been playing with barrel aging some cocktails in my basement, and the results are really delicious – turns out a 30-day aged black Manhattan pairs really well with Detroit-style pizza. 


Cheers until next time,




lucyishapeyton's picture

Cellular Respiration

Equation- Glucose + Oxygen= ATP + Carbon Dioxide + Water

Where- Mitochondria

Cellular respiration is important because the yeast helps the bread rise. The yeast undergoes cellular respiration and it starts off by respiring aerobically, which creates carbon dioxide and water.

Where do plants fall into this? Plants fall into by performing photosynthesis which helps the bread rise. This happens because the products of photosynthesis (Glucose and Oxygen) are the reactants for cellular respiration. After it goes through cellular respiration it creates carbon dioxide water and ATP which helps the dough rise to create the bread.


Anaerobic Respiration Vs Aerobic Respiration

Yeast vs Humans- Yeast undergoes cellular respiration by starting with aerobic respiration. After the oxygen runs out, anaerobic respiration occurs and the alcohol is evaporated in the high temperatures in the oven.

Humans- Humans undergo aerobic respiration because they breathe in oxygen and aerobic respiration is with oxygen. Humans also go through anaerobic respiration because humans go through lactic acid fermentation. 

Why is it important for bread making?

It is important for bread making because the aerobic process uses oxygen which goes into cellular respiration and helps create the products.. Anaerobic occurs after the oxygen runs out and carbon dioxide and water is created and the dough rises.


CO2 Cycle

How does bread making fall into the carbon cycle?

The yeast respires and released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In the environment, the yeast can be found in plants. The plants take in the carbon dioxide and goes through photosynthesis. This causes it to release oxygen and all living things take it in. Temperature is related to amount of CO2 produced by yeast, this being higher temperatures will result in more production of CO2 and the cycle keeps going.



Our recipe ended working out pretty much as planned. The bread tasted really good, even after we put in all that flour to make it not liquid. The only problem with the bread was the the bottom didn’t get cooked enough and was therefore still dough and raw. In order to prevent this from happening again, we need to leave the bread in the oven a little longer and we will be golden. For the most part we went along with the right amount of ingredients we needed to put in the mix. So we probably wouldn’t change the amount if we ever did this again. Overall, I would say our bread ended up being a success and we had so much fun making it!


Video with pictures and vlogs:


Michael Davis's picture
Michael Davis

I just wanted to post this side-by-side of one of my first loaves and a more recent loaf to illustrate the importance of failing well. I believe that in endeavors such as this, there is no such thing as failure as long as you learn from it. I baked the loaf on the left on January 18th; the loaf on the right on February 5th. I baked a bunch in between, adjusting my methods, recipe, and handling techniques, all while taking a lot of notes. I also talked frequently with a friend who was further along than I was in baking this style of bread. 

I could have baked the first loaf and said "I cannot do this" and left it at that. Instead, I embraced the fact that I was new at it and that it would take time and attention to get better. This wasn't easy for me, because, like many people, I have the strange cognitive condition of thinking that I have to be really good at everything I do right away, even if I've never done that thing before. These kinds of feelings, when unaddressed, will sabotage any new endeavor you attempt. 

So take heart! Acknowledge the fact that you do not know everything and embrace self-compassion as you learn to bake great bread, one step at a time. :)

Michael Davis's picture
Michael Davis

I love bread. 70% total grain, home milled flour (57% wheat, 13% rye); 30% white flour (King Arthur); 80% hydration. I'm fairly new to natural yeast fermented baking, and brand new to this site. I baked this loaf a few weeks ago, and have been experimenting with a lot things since then to gain understanding of the inner workings of this beautiful and delicious food. Suffice it to say, none of them have turned out as well as this one (yet!) :)

All the whole grain flour I use comes from my friend Benjamin Holland, who's been home-milling for almost a year now, and who has some beautiful pictures on this site of the bread he's baked. Check them out!

BestBreadMaker's picture

Day 1 - Entry 1 - Doing the Research - March 7th, 2017 - 11:41 AM

We’ve begun research on our mission to create the best bread recipe we can by experimentation.  We have discussed what we will do and have created a recipe we hope will be successful.  Tonight Jack will be testing our recipe as Riley and I are busy.  



Day 1 - Entry 2 - March 7th, 2017 - 6:34 PM

Jack had been busy working on the bread and has created multiple tests where he tried to see different results when he changed the recipes.  He concluded that brown sugar was the best tasting, as it was the sweetest, and decided the bread was good with garlic and butter.  He shared amazing photos of the bread he created.



(The dough was rising)


(“tastes like a pretzel”)

(his hands got messy)

UPDATE: In the meantime (while we wait for tomorrow to come around) I’m going to explain the process the yeast goes through.  As you may know, humans use cellular respiration to break down glucose into ATP, which followed the equation “C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen) Yields ATP (energy) + 6H2O (Water) + 6CO2 (the carbon dioxide you breathe out).


Unfortunately, yeast cells cannot use this process because oxygen is needed to start the process (which takes place in the mitochondria of the cells).  Because of this, yeast does not need cellular respiration.  Plants produce glucose and therefore and a major part of cellular respiration, because they pack the energy into the food.  Yeast still want to break down the plant's energy from glucose, and use anaerobic respiration, which is a type without oxygen present.  They go through Alcoholic Fermentation, which is why the yeast needs sugar and water.  The water activates the yeast and it breaks down the glucose which causes the byproducts of Alcoholic Fermentation to be produces, CO2 and Alcohol.  The CO2 builds air pockets and causes the years to rise, which is how we get our beloved risen bread we can place into the oven.


I’m kind of tired right now so I’ll catch you guys later when we continue the bread making.



Day 1 - Entry 3 - Our Plan - March 7th, 2017 11:56 PM

We've concluded on a good recipe and finalized our plans for tomorrow.  Below I’ll tell you our planned procedure and our recipe, and then Riley will take over and explain the rationale for each ingredient and its amount.



  • We’ll start by combining all the dry ingredients (Brown Sugar, Baking Powder Yeast, Salt, and half of the Flour)

  • Then we measure out and heat up our water to 125 degrees fahrenheit.

  • If the water was too hot we let it cool.

  • Mix in the water and once the dough has combined, remove from bag.

  • Add the other half of the flour and knead the dough together.

  • Use your hands to form a ball

  • Place the ball under a heat lamp to rise for 30 minutes

  • Bake the dough.



3 2/3 TBSP Water - Water is used to activate the yeast in our mixture and hydrates dry ingredients.

1 ¼ TSP Brown Sugar - Brown sugar is used a substitute for sugar, which sweetens the bread, and allows the bread to brown as it is cooking.

¾ TSP Yeast - Yeast is used to make the bread rise through the process of alcoholic fermentation. This makes the yeast release CO2, and causes air pockets to form in the dough.

½ CUP Flour - Flour is added to add structure to the bread, and help give it substance and form, plus a pleasant chewy texture.

⅙ TSP Salt - Salt is used to control the actions of the yeast, not to mention adding flavor. We used this amount so that the salt flavor was accentuated, while still being subtle.

1/12 TSP Baking Powder - Baking Powder is used to help along the process of alcoholic fermentation in the mixture. It helps the bread rise when water and heat are added.


Day 2 - Entry 1 - Making the Bread - March 8th, 2017 - 11:54 AM

We have begun the process of making the bread in class, and are measuring the flour or, after getting the perfect amount and referring to the recipe we are measuring out the yeast.  After measuring it out and adding the yeast to the bag of flour, we got our bags of brown sugar and salt, and added the appropriate amounts to our main dry mixture.  We are now beginning to mix all out dry ingredients together using the bag to mix it all into one consistency.


After getting the dry mixture done, we are measuring out 3 and a third TBSP of water and adding it into the bag.  We got water from the sink into measuring devices.  After microwaving the water, we realized we had heated it up to 220 degrees, which is about 100 degrees too hot for the yeast and could kill it in seconds,  We decided to wait for the water to cool down before adding it to the bag.  We are currently waiting.


Our Procedure:

We started by combining 1 ¼ teaspoons of brown Sugar, ¾ of a teaspoon of yeast, half cup of flour, ⅙ of a teaspoon of salt, and 1/12 of a teaspoon (or just a pinch) of baking powder into a Ziploc bag.  We mixed together our dry mixture.


Then we heated 3 and a third tablespoons of water in a small paper cup using a microwave.



(making the mixture)


(The water was too hot and could kill the yeast)



Day 2 - Entry 2 - Combining Wet and Dry - March 8th, 2017 12:01 AM

The water had finally cooled down to a good temperature of 125 degrees (Fahrenheit) to allow the yeast to go through alcoholic fermentation.  We will be watching the respiration occur and hopefully will see C02 production as the dough rises and becomes bread ready to bake.


Jack is now mixing together the wet and dry ingredients, and the dough is not shaping up.  After reaching out for help, we realized that the procedure we used was not in line with the one given to us, as Jack forgot to add half the flour, let it set, and add the other half later.  We added another half teaspoon of water in hopes that the dry mixture starts to form a dough.  Let’s hope all turns out well.


Our Procedure:

We started by waiting for the water in the cup to cool down.


Then, once the water reached 125 degrees Fahrenheit, we poured the cup of water into our dry mixture bag.  We then proceeded to knead at the bag until the water and dry mixture combined into a sticky ball.




(Adding the water)


(Jack mixing in the bag)


(setting up and using his workspace)


Day 2 - Entry 3 - Success from Failure - March 8th, 2017 12:05 PM

We emptied the bag of cough onto wax paper and Jack is getting wrist deep and messy in the dough.  He’s currently kneading, forming it into making the perfect ball of dough, and it as lots of flour is visible.  While kneading it, we silently our concerned our bread might not turn out well.  We are planning on putting the ball under a heat lamp to see the fermentation of the yeast.


UPDATE: It worked, and Jack is now holding his masterpiece ball of dough, as you can see in the attached pictures.


Our Procedure:

We continued to mix the bag until we dumped it out onto wax paper, and Jack kneaded the dough by hand until it turned into a solid ball ready to be put under the heat lamp.


UPDATE 2: As I wait, I’m going to continue talking about the yeast rising.  As I told you earlier, year uses anaerobic respiration, which does not require oxygen.  The reason you breathe in oxygen (as you hopefully know) is because your body breaks down its energy using aerobic respiration, which needs oxygen.  This is the comparison between humans and yeast.  It’s important to know about anaerobic and aerobic respiration while making yeast so that way you can put your yeast in a good environment to convert energy in.  Anyway, I’m going to go watch my bread, talk to you later!

Day 2 - Entry 4 - The Rising and Fermentation - February 8th, 2017 12:25 PM

It’s ALIVE! The process of fermentation had finally begun as our bread, although a bit dry, is rising well and looks just like a fresh loaf of bread (although a bit small).  Tomorrow when we make our final product, we’re going to add more water because our bread is too dry and doesn't feel very doughy (instead of being sticky, it’s the same texture as bread).


Our Procedure:

We placed our dough under the heat lamp and waited 30 minutes for the dough to rise.


(our dough under the heat lamp!)


(we’d say we did pretty good)

(sad to throw it out)

Day 3 - Entry 1 - The Final Product (in the Works) - February 9th, 2017 11:39 AM

Hey Guys! Today we’re making our final product to eat and I’m super excited to see how it turns out.  We hope we've learned from yesterday and are planning on adding a bit more water.  Because the way we added the flour worked out, and we know it works, we will continue to add all the flour at once.  We have made some minor changes today though, and will be adding a bit of garlic powder to make the bread taste nicer.  Catch you all when we finish making the dough.


UPDATE: We are combining the water now, but first have to wait for it to settle to 125 degrees, we'll update the blog when we do that!



We combined the following:

1 ¼ TSP Brown Sugar

¾ TSP Yeast

½ CUP Flour

⅙ TSP Salt

1/12 TSP Baking Powder

And a desirable amount of Garlic Powder (we added a teaspoon)


Then we finished off by adding the 3 and a third tablespoons of water.

(our yeast)

(measuring out water)

(heated in a microwave)

(The workspace and me on the blog of course)


Day 3 - Entry 2 - The Final Product (Almost Done) - February 9th, 2017 11:49 AM

We just finished making the perfect ball and used a stick of softened butter like chopstick, and after rubbing it and coating the balls with the butter we sprinkled it with soft flakes of garlic powder.  Hopefully all goes well and this process makes it taste good without affecting the rising!



After adding the 125 degree water, we formed a nice ball and rubbed some butter on it.  


We then sprinkled Garlic Powder onto the dough and placed it under a heat lamp




(A nice ball)


(Me [fayaz] hard at work on the blog)

(under the lamp with garlic flake details)


Day 3 - Entry 3 - The Final Product (is Rising) - February 9th, 2017 12:20 PM

I'm currently just waiting for the bread to rise, and I’m scrolling through the blog to see if I can enlighten you anymore about anything.  I just found that I never explained the carbon cycle being part of bread making, so I’ll hopefully educate you on that now.


So as you know from what I said earlier, anaerobic respiration, although not requiring O2, does produce CO2 (Alcoholic Fermentation in specific).  When the CO2 is produced, the dough rises, and we get our famous rising dough.  As you can probably guess, the CO2 production plays a part in the carbon cycle because, as you would've never guessed, Carbon Dioxide contains carbon.  When you consume the bread, you consume the carbon, and it eventually gets released back into the carbon cycle.   We’ll now go and check the bread, and after our last entry and reflection, Jack will summarize all the science I’ve laid out over the past few days.


Day 3 - Entry 4 - The Final Product (Is gonna be Baked) - February 9th, 2017 12:34 PM

The dough finally finished rising.  Below will be some pictures of the finished product.


We decided to add some more garlic as the flavor didn’t come out to well from the smell, and we applied a fresh coat of butter.


We’ll now be placing our creation in the oven, but we don’t have an oven with us so someone will be doing that for us.  We’ll have to wait till tomorrow to see and taste our product.  I can’t wait!



In the end our recipe turned out well but right now I’m going off of the bread under the heat lamp, and not the baked version yet.  After smelling the delicious dough, we realized we hadn't added enough garlic, so put some more butter and garlic on top.  We would recommend adding 2 teaspoons rather than 1.


Here are the reflections after the bread was baked;

Jack's Thoughts:

I think our Bread was pretty successful. It was a bit dense but we did good on choosing the ingredients and substituting what we did. I researched our recipe on my own time and found that it worked good and would taste good in class. I would give the taste of the bread a 9/10, it tastes like a soft pretzel but we would need to add a condiment of some sort to make it less bland. I think our bread also turned out very visually appealing and also tasted pretty good. We were successful because we each too different roles in design, typing, and research and our work paid off.  Now I’ll let Riley explain his thoughts about the bread.

Our recipe was very successful, considering that it was delicious. It tasted roughly like a soft pretzel, with a hint a garlic flavor, much like a garlic knot. Since Jack experimented making the bread on his own (outside of class), it gave us time to work on perfecting our recipe, and do more research into what the ingredients did. We chose to use brown sugar instead of normal sugar, which helped sweeten the bread, while giving it a good color. Another ingredient we added was garlic powder, to accentuate the “garlic knot” flavor. Now Fayaz is gonna tell you guys his description of our product.

After making the bread and testing how it turned out, we concluded that we had succeeded in making a great bread.  While it may have not been the best bread recipe, it was great for beginners with no previous knowledge of making bread.  We researched the reason each ingredient was added and created a great proportion that turned out wonderfully.  We chose good ingredients as not only did the brown sugar create a good flavor, it also added  soft and breakable texture that normal sugar couldn't achieve.  Our bread was not rubbery, but soft and delicate.  It was a bit firm, but in a good way because it held together well while also being able to be bitten really easily.  I definitely would use this recipe again, but may increase the yeast amount a bit to create  fluffier result.  I also believe our product would have been a lot better with some more garlic powder, as the flavor wasn't fully distributed (although it tasted great on the top, and like a pretzel in the core). Our success has led me to understand the process of bread making, the science behind it, and how delicious bread can be.

 Thanks for reading and we'll update with new baked photos tonight!




Jack's Summary:

We wanted to figure out the best way to use science to create the best bread. In doing this we took a base recipe and added a few ingredients such as brown sugar and baking soda for their benefit to the bread. We tried making the bread on 3 different occasions which helped us so we could know what to make better each time. We changed the water amounts mostly but this helped our bread Benefit a lot. I'd say trial and error helped us a lot but the biggest help was our knowledge in the scientific aspect of how each individual piece of the recipe helped the bread rise, taste, and more. We did good on this project, as we used the science well and also made sure that it would taste pretty good too.



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