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PaulZ's picture
PaulZ

Baking time vs Temperature? And the Winner is...

Hi all,

I have a new Italian convection twin-fan assisted oven with steam function. Very nice, very even bake but oh so f-a-s-t!

Problem is: If I follow recipes times and temperatures to the letter, my breads,pastries and cakes are overbaked and the recommended bake time is not yet up.

Question is:

Is it better to:

1. Retain the advised baking temperature and reduce the bake time?  Or,

2. Retain the advised bake time but reduce the temp by approx 10-15%?

3. Or a combo of both?

Any advice or previous experience of this?

Thanks

 

 

 

 

 

 

hammy's picture
hammy

Chemicals to prevent bread staling.

What are the chemicals used to prevent staling in commercial bread? For example, the Wonder Bread that remains soft and moist for 3 days or more. How does these chemicals work? 

 

 

GSnyde's picture
GSnyde

Nothing Un-Yummy: Croissants, Morning Buns and Fruit-Nut Bread

In celebration of the first three-day weekend of the new year, I made a batch of laminated dough, using Txfarmer’s deservedly celebrated poolish croissant formula and procedures (http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/22677/poolish-croissant-pursuit-perfection).  As with my first attempt at this challenging but rewarding treat (http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/24692/pâtisserie-lamentation), I split the batch in two and made some croissants and some morning buns.

Again I found Txfarmer’s detailed notes to be very useful, especially the notes about being patient with the dough and letting it rest when it doesn’t want to be stretched to the required dimensions, and letting the shaped pastries proof fully (over 3.5 hours for me).

Coupla notes about my procedures: I used Plugra butter, but about 30 grams less fold-in butter than Txfarmer specifies.  I trimmed the dough sheets liberally before each fold to get nice square, layered edges (more on the trimmings below).  I let the dough rest overnight in the fridge after the final fold.  I haven’t been baking for that long, and each experience with a rolling pin is an education.  I’m getting better at keeping the dough sheets regular in shape and even in thickness.

The results were very satisfactory—not significantly better than my first try, but at least as good (repeatability is an encouraging thing).  Thanks, again, Txfarmer!

The morning buns pretty much followed the Tartine formula (linked in my earlier blog post), except I left out the orange zest and used a bit more butter in the muffin cups, so the bottoms of the buns are more caramelly. 

Since I had about 40 or 50 grams of dough scraps, I decided to try something different.  I mooshed the scraps into a ball, rolled it out to about 3/16” thick, covered the sheet with grated Jarslberg cheese, rolled it up like a jelly roll, sliced 1” rounds, proofed for about 90 minutes, and baked them at 350 for about 40 minutes.  These are delectable little cheese wheels, crispy and flaky outside and tender inside…very cheesy.  Next time, I’ll add a touch of cayenne.

In the midst of the patisserie adventure, I had to fulfill a spousal demand for my usual variation on Reinhart’s Cinnamon-Raisin-Walnut Bread.  Mine includes a mix of walnuts and pecans and a mix of golden raisins and dried cranberries.  This time I tried one little new twist—I soaked the raisins and cranberries in a rum soaker (1/4 cup dark rum, 1 ¼ cup hot water and 1 tbsp of sugar).

There’re almost too many treats in the house now.  So I haven’t cut into the Cinnamon-Rum Raisin-Cranberry-Walnut-Pecan Bread yet.  I’ll post a crumb shot later.

Added Note:  Here's the crumb shot.  There is a mild and enjoyable rum flavor in the raisins, an improvement on a really good bread.  Kinda like Whisky for Breakfast.

 

Glenn

dmsnyder's picture
dmsnyder

San Francisco Sourdough Bread: Was the secret worth revealing?

San Francisco Sour Dough French Bread

according to

Kline, Sugihara and McCready

(The Bakers Digest, April, 1970)

 

In their 1970 Bakers Digest articles, Kline, Sugihara and McCready first deliniated the microbiology of San Francisco Sourdough bread. Their discovery of the special relationship between the dominant yeast – S. exeguna – and a unique species of Lactobacillus provided understanding of the special flavor of San Francisco sourdough and the stability of the sourdough cultures over time.

In the first of their articles, they also described the process San Francisco bakeries used to maintain their starters and make their breads. They describe the process as if all of the bakeries used the same process without actually stating this was the case. Regardless, the process they describe is significantly different in several respects from those found in any of the currently popular baking books in my collection. Because of that, and because I'm curious about whether the process they described can be successfully replicated in my own kitchen and produce bread like that of the traditional San Francisco sourdough breads with which I'm familial, I made a couple of loaves following their procedures.

The formulas and procedures described by Kline, et al. in the articles cited are as follows:

Sponge

Bakers' %

Firm starter

100

High-gluten flour

100

Water

46-52

  1. Ferment for 7-8 hours at 80º F

  2. In the bakery, fed every 8 hours

  3. Can feed less often by fermenting for 6 hours and retarding at 50-55ºF or fermenting 3-4 hours and retarding for longer times with refreshments 3-4 times per week, rather than 3 times per day.

 

Dough

Bakers' %

Sponge

20

AP flour

100

Water

60

Salt

2

  1. Mix ingredients (No mix method or time is given.)

  2. Rest for 30 minutes at room temperature.

  3. Divide and pre-shape.

  4. Proof for 1 hour at 90ºF

  5. Shape.

  6. Proof for 6-8 hours at 85-90º F.

  7. Score loaves and Bake with lots of steam for the first half of the bake at 375-390ºF for 45-55 minutes.

To make 2 kg of dough, I proceeded as follows: 

Sponge

Bakers' %

Wt (g)

Firm starter

100

88

High-gluten flour

100

88

Water

50

44

Total

250

220

1. I built the firm starter for the sponge with two elaborations, starting with my firm stored starter.

2. The sponge was mixed and fermented at 80º F for 10 hours.

 

Dough

Bakers' %

Wt (g)

Sponge

20

220

AP flour

100

1099

Water

60

659

Salt

2

22

Total

182

2000

Note: Accounting for the flour and water in the sponge, the actual final dough hydration was 58.9%.

Procedures

  1. All the dough ingredients except the salt were mixed and allowed to rest, covered, at room temperature for one hour.

  2. The salt was sprinkled over the dough and mixed in a Bosch Universal Plus mixer at First (lowest) speed for 1-2 minutes, then at Second speed for 5 minutes.

  3. The dough was then divided into two 1 kg pieces, pre-shaped as rounds and proofed at 90º F for 1 hour. (I placed the pieces on a bakers' linen-covered 1/4 sheet pan in a Brød & Taylor Folding Proofer.)

  4. The pieces were than shaped tightly as boules, transferred to floured bannetons and placed in plastic bags.

  5. The loaves were then proofed in the Folding Proofer at 85º F for 6 hours.

  6. 45 minutes before baking, the oven was pre-heated to 450º F/convection with a baking stone on the middle shelf and a cast iron skillet filled with lava rocks on the bottom shelf.

  7. The loaves were dusted with semolina, transferred to a peel, scored and loaded on the baking stone. A perforated pie tin filled with ice cubes was placed on the lava rocks. The oven was turned town to 380º F/conventional bake.

  8. After 23 minutes, the skillet was removed from the oven. The oven setting was changed to 360º F/convection bake, and the loaves were baked for another 22 minutes.

  9. The oven was turned off, but the loaves were left on the baking stone, with the oven door ajar, for another 15 minutes.

  10. The loaves were then cooled on a rack before slicing.

This is a low-hydration dough. After mixing, it was very smooth and barely tacky in consistency. It was still very dry and firm before the final shaping. After the six hours final proofing, the dough was very soft and puffy. I was afraid it was over-proofed and would deflate when scored or, at least, have poor oven spring and bloom. However, It took the scoring well and had good oven spring and bloom.

The baking temperature was lower than I usually employ for lean dough hearth loaves, and the crust color was thus lighter than most of my bakes. The crust color was quite characteristic of the San Francisco Sourdough breads I remember from the 1960's and 1970's. The loaf profile also was typical – a rather flat loaf.

The aroma of the vented oven air was remarkably sour during the final 10-15 minutes of the bake. The bread, once baked, cooled and sliced, revealed a very even crumb. The crust was somewhat crunchy but more chewy. The flavor was minimally sour and had little complexity or sweetness to it. All in all, a handsome loaf with undistinguished eating quality.

I expect I could tweak more sourness out of this dough by retarding the loaves overnight, but I don't particularly feel inclined to experiment further when there are so many other breads that are so much better.

 Comments regarding the process described would be very welcome. I am curious regarding the disparity between the San Francisco Sourdough's I have had, supposedly produced by this method, and what I baked at home. Any thoughts?

David

 

PaulZ's picture
PaulZ

Make a Stiff Dough levain from a liquid levain

Hi from Johannesburg South Africa!

Just love this site.

I would like to make a Stiff Dough Levain using a portion of my Rye Liquid Levain (100% Hydration.) My month old Liquid Levain is a dream performer after 5 previous failed attempts. (All others developed like steroid bunnies for 3 days and then died after 4 days... :(   Maybe the daily temp here in Johannesburg during our current summer - 82 - 84 F? ) Also struggling with white flour starter. Tried pineapple juice, tried grapes, tried Evian water -all nix. If anyone has a fail-safe, invincible "never-say-die"white bread flour starter method or site link???

Can someone out there suggest to me percentage proportions of  raw rye flour and water required to mix with my 100% liquid levain that will make it a stiff dough levain of approx 65-70% hydration??? (In SA we use the weight system (cf to volume) for baking and use metric - much more accurate.)

Paul Z

 

Szanter5339's picture
Szanter5339

A Magyar Kultúra Napja.

ananda's picture
ananda

“Bread and Roses” – Artisan Baking, Training and Consultancy in Northumberland

“Bread and Roses” – Artisan Baking, Training and Consultancy in Northumberland

I hadn’t baked for over a fortnight; very unusual.   I didn’t have any plans to bake either.   But, early on Thursday morning I knew I needed to bake.   Alison and I are following quite a strict diet, so we are not eating grains at the moment…quite a tough call.   I had made 4 Brazil and Hazelnut, Raisin and Apricot Scones on Tuesday as samples to celebrate the arrival of 1kg of the best commercial baking powder available in the UK today from my colleague at Kudos Blends…thank you Dinnie.   So light!   These are English Tea Scones, somewhat different to the US concept, I believe, and much-loved here in the UK.   But I wanted to bake bread, and I wanted to fire up the oven; the winds have finally subsided, and today was cold, but beautifully still and sunny.

I built both the wheat levain and rye sourdough over Thursday afternoon and night, so I could start very early this morning.   This is what I made:

1.     “Rossisky” using the Auerman Method

One Pullman Pan

Rye Sour build:

Day

Time

Stock Sour

Dark Rye

Water

TOTAL

Thursday

15:00

80g

160g

160g

400g

Thursday

20:00

400g

120g

120g

640g

 

Material/Stage

Formula [% of flour]

Recipe [grams]

1a. Rye Sourdough

 

 

Bacheldre Organic Dark Rye Flour

30

300

Water

30

300

TOTAL

60

600

 

 

 

1b. “Scald”

 

 

Sifted Bacheldre Organic Dark Rye Flour

15

150

Red Malted Barley Powder

5

50

Boiling Water

35

350

TOTAL

55

550

 

 

 

2. “Sponge”

 

 

Rye Sourdough [from 1a.]

60

600

“Scald” [from 1b.]

55

550

TOTAL

115

1150

 

 

 

3. Final Paste

 

 

“Sponge” [from 2]

115

1150

Bacheldre Organic Dark Rye

30

300

Gilchesters’ Organic Pizza/Ciabatta Flour

20

200

Water

20

200

Salt

1.5

15

TOTAL

186.5

1865

 

 

 

% pre-fermented flour

30 + 20 = 50

-

% overall hydration

85

-

% wholegrain flour

75

-

FACTOR

10

-

 

Method:

  • Build the sour as described, make the Scald at the same time as preparing the final refreshment of the sour.   Cover and cool to room temperature overnight.   Make the Sponge first thing in the morning and ferment this for 4 hours.
  • Mix the Gilchesters’ Pizza flour with the water for the final paste and autolyse for 1 hour.   Add the salt, remaining Dark Rye and the sponge to the autolyse in a mixer, and combine with the paddle beater to form a paste.
  • Bulk proof for 1 hour.
  • Line a Pullman Pan and other bread pans neatly with silicone paper and scale the paste into the pans, neatening off carefully.   Top with some freshly crushed coriander seeds.    Attach the lid.
  • Final Proof 4 hours.   Bake a minimum of 4 hours in the “dead” wood-fired oven.
  • Cool on wires

Photographs below; no crumb shot, sorry.   I took these photographs straight after the loaf emerged from the oven and Alison came downstairs mesmerised by the aroma and, frankly surprised bread was emerging from the oven so late at night.

Chocolate...Dark Chocolate!

2.    Gilchesters’ Miche/Boules

Makes 6 loaves: 2 Boules @ 400g, 1 Boule @ 800g and 2 Miche @ 1200g.

Levain build:

Day

Time

Stock Levain

Strong White Flour

Water

TOTAL

Thursday

15:00

40g

100g

60g

200g

Thursday

18:00

200g

500g

300g

1000g

Thursday

21:00

1000g

250g

150g

1400g

The leaven was then allowed to prove slowly overnight in the fridge

Material/Stage

Formula [% of flour]

Recipe [grams]

1. Wheat Levain

 

 

Marriage’s Organic Strong White Flour

25

750

Water

15

450

TOTAL

40

1200

 

 

 

2. Final Dough

 

 

Wheat Levain [from above]

40

1200

Gilchesters’ Organic Farmhouse Flour

75

2250

Salt

1.8

54

Water

56

1680

TOTAL

172.8

5184

 

 

 

% pre-fermented flour

25

-

% overall hydration

71

-

% wholegrain flour [approx 85% extraction]

75

-

FACTOR

30

-

 

Method:

  •  Build the levain, see description above.
  • For mixing, first of all mix on first speed for 3 minutes with a hook attachment, then autolyse the Gilchesters flour with the water for 1 hour.
  • Add the levain and the salt.   Mix on first speed only for 10 minutes.   Dough Temperature Calculation worked out as follows: WT = 3[DDT – FRH] – Leaven Temp – Flour Temp.   3[84 – 1] – 18 – 20 = 45.   Water temperature required at 45°C.   The gentle nature of the mixing action is evident here with just 1°C rise in temperature due to friction!
  • Bulk prove the dough maintaining DDT of 26°C for 2 hours.  
  • Scale and divide as above.   Mould round and rest for 15 minutes.   Prepare bannetons, re-mould dough pieces and set to final proof.
  • Final proof DDT maintained at 26°C, for 3 hours.
  • Tip each loaf out of the banneton onto a peel, score the top and set to bake on the sole of the wood-fired oven.   Small loaves bake in half an hour, next biggest takes 40 minutes and the biggest loaf took around 50 minutes.   The oven was fiercely hot!!!
  • Cool on wires.

There is stacks of flavour in this bread.   It’s not sour, but the crust is dark and well-fired, and the crumb as moist as could be, nicely gelatinised, soft and very tasty too.   Photographs below:

 

  1. 3.    Brazil and Hazelnut, Raisin and Apricot Scones

On Tuesday I had arranged for the local Food Safety Officer to come and visit to look over my operation and food safety systems.   She used the visit to scrutinise all my traceability systems and to go through all the baking operations thoroughly, ending up listing the visit as a full inspection…which I passed, with just some bits of advice how I can build on the work already in place.   So I made these Scones just before she arrived using the paperwork trail I had devised, in order for me to test the systems and her to verify them.   Here’s the recipe and formula:

Material

Formula [% of flour]

Recipe [grams]

Marriage’s Strong Organic White Flour

40

64

Gilchesters’ Pizza/Ciabatta Flour

60

96

Pell Opti-Scone Baking Powder

5.6

9

Organic Slightly Salted Butter

25

40

Full Fat Milk

50

80

Free Range Egg - Beaten

6.25

10

Caster Sugar

18.75

30

Chopped Brazil Nuts

6.25

10

Chopped Hazelnuts

6.25

10

California Raisins

6.25

10

Chopped Dried Apricots

6.25

10

TOTAL

230.6

369

 

Method:

  • Pre-heat the electric oven for ¾ hour to 210°C, then turn down to 190°C and use the ordinary fan-assist setting.
  • For such a small mix, I made these by hand.   Weigh the milk and add the required beaten egg.   Dissolve the sugar into this and set to one side.   Sieve the flours and baking powder well, then add the butter cut into cubes, and crumb carefully.   Add the prepared fruit and nuts and bring the mix together carefully by adding the liquids.
  • Roll out the scone paste and cut out 4 scones using a fluted cutter.   My scones weighed 75 – 80g, and I had a small piece leftover.
  • Place the scones on a baking sheet lined with silicone paper, and brush the tops with beaten egg.   Rest the scones for 15 minutes, then bake for 15 – 18 minutes in the pre-heated oven; I baked them on top of a baking stone for maximum lift.
  • Cool on wires

I kept the small scone, and found good homes for the other 4 on condition of getting feedback.   Very positive on 2, still waiting to hear back about the other 2.   Here are a couple of photographs:

 

The New Year has been all about developing the new business.   I have a website but it just has the bare essentials of a frontpage and a bit more besides.   I have a food safety system approved, but still to be completely perfected and implemented…nearly there though!   Trading Standards have confirmed my retail plans are all compliant and I have an Insurance Policy in place too!   Best of all, I’ve been accepted onto the Local Farmers’ Market at Alnwick, taking place on the last Friday in the month, every month…just 2 weeks to get ready for this now.   And, I have an up and running financial package on my pc to take care of the accounts too.   I had a meeting on Monday afternoon with a Community baking group and have some consultancy work with them commencing a week today, Friday.   I am also in negotiations with the soon-to-be ex Chief Exec at Allied Bakeries Gateshead.   We are looking at training packages to sit alongside the Management Consultancy project he is setting up.   I also have a timetable to work to of 2 days a week baking and gathering wood; 2 days for study and the remainder for training and consultancy work.   Busy and exciting too; sufficient to mean I can delay preparing the Business Plan for a few months all being well.   The plan in my head is working out sufficiently well so far.

Happy New Year to you all

Andy

ehanner's picture
ehanner

Zeeuwse Bolussen by Freerk

I was so inspired today by Freerk's post about this 15th Century bread, well I just dropped everything I was doing and made a batch. The video recipe is inspired genius in my humble opinion. Very stylish and well thought out. My wife inquired if this was a dessert. I smiled and said no, just a snack:>)

These are fun to make, easy and fast. They are also history as they disappeared quickly. I highly recommend giving these a try. I backed these for 9 minutes. Any longer and they would start getting crusty. I did sprinkle some sugar topping over each piece just before baking.

Thank you Freerk for sharing this wonderful old recipe.

These are a little out of order but you will get the idea.

Eric


Just baked


Proofed and ready for bake.


The 1/4 sheet pan is perfect for these. They fit nicely in the proofer.

I pre shaped them and used a mid stage after coating the ropes in sugar mix. I found I needed an 18 inch rope to easily tie the knots. If you look at the far right you can see the coated ropes waiting to be stretched and knotted.

The second layer of proofing rolls.

davidg618's picture
davidg618

Communicating with Bakers math

Is there a "standard" format for communicating a bread formula? If there is, I'd love it if some whould guide me to it.

I think Bakers' math is wonderful: a tool that carries so much information, in so few symbols. It's akin to tensor analysis. However, when I both read or write a bread formula I find myself stumbling. How do I "correctly" communicate the amount of preferment (sourdough starter, poolish, biga, pate fermente, etc.)? What useful information does the bakers' percentage of the total dough weight communicate? A check-sum digit?. 

For example, as a home baker who keeps his seed starter refrigerated, I don't have a bubbling pot of fresh levain handy on the kitchen counter, for those moments when I think, "Why don't I just whip out a loaf before dinner time." Before each sourdough bake--or for that matter any bread incorporating any preferment--I have to build the budgeted amount of ripe levain needed by the amount of dough planned for. Of course, I have to account for the water and flour in the preferment in the final dough's balance. In my head (and in the spreadsheet program I wrote more than two years ago) I simply account for the flour in the levain--its weight(s) and type(s)-- in the planned flours' budget. Similarly, I account for its liquid weight in the planned liquid's budget. This has worked for me since day one; however, since day two--wanting to post/boast of my success--after I'd looked throughout TFL for a way to list, not a recipe, but this new found tool, a Formula--I was, and remain to this day confused. Now when I post the ratios of ingredients on a bread I've baked, I report the baker's percentage of the flour(s) used building the levain, and the levain's hydration. I think it is an accurate and complete communication, but it seems cumbersome. Furthermore, on both TFL, and in published breadbooks, I've not found a "standard" practice.

I've never listed the bakers' percentage of the total dough.Mea culpa.

In the words of the Beatles, "Help me, if you can!

David G

freerk's picture
freerk

Luctor et Emergo; video recipe

                                          


Managing the Water

Secretly I enjoy the way all of us here in the Low Lands are stumbling into 2012. After days of continuous rainfall and storms coming in, the water levels are rapidly rising. A small stretch of dike in the North has broken, but much worse has been avoided so far by doing what the Dutch were born to do, or so it seems; managing the water. In some parts of the country dikes are broken on purpose to give way to the water in a controlled way. Storm barriers are lowered, risen, unfolded, or whatever which genius technical way they have come up with to protect us from the ever hungry rising water. Don't you love it when a system works? These are the moments that your hard-earned tax money is worth every cent you paid, and more! For instead of huffing and puffing and dragging sacks of sand around, I can sit here behind my computer, with dry feet and not worry about a thing. 'Cause I got some one watching out for me, and all of us out here! The Dutch province of Zeeland ("Sealand") is, when it comes to water, the "epitome" of what it means to be living at or under sea level. Looking at this map, I guess you can figure out why.

Luctor et EmergoThe slogan on their weapon shield reads "Luctor et Emergo", translating into "I struggle and emerge". Even though that slogan goes back a long time and actually refers to the struggle against Spanish occupation in the 16th century, the average Dutchman will associate Zeeland with the biggest disaster ever to hit the province on the 1st of February 1953. In a big storm and the flooding that followed, almost 2000 people drowned and 100.000 people lost everything they owned; their houses, their livestock, everything... They struggled, together with the rest of the country and did indeed "emerge". I an epic mission never to let this sort of thing happen again, they constructed this little baby;

Zeeuwse Bolussen

Brought to Zeeland by the bakers of the Portuguese Sephardic Jews who were forced to flee north at the end of the 15th century, these sticky sweet rolls, traditionally shaped in a spiral, quickly became popular with the locals as well, to such an extent that the "Zeeuwse Bolus" has become the signature bake of the province in modern days. That is another thing the Dutch are quite good at; all through history the Netherlands has been a refuge and safe haven for people on the run. Or should I say; another thing the Dutch WERE good at, because nowadays, even though the biggest part of the world still thinks of The Netherlands as a liberal and tolerant place, the Dutch authorities are sending kids who were raised here out of the country just to set an example. Let this recipe for "zeeuwse bolussen" remind us all how something really good can come from opening up to "strangers" in dire need! Luctor et Emergo indeed...

Ingredients
500 gr. All Purpose Flour
7 gr. Salt 5 gr. Instant Yeast
320 gr. Lukewarm Milk
75 gr. Unsalted Butter
250 gr. Brown Sugar
2 TBS cinnamon
zest of one lemon
Method
Combine the flour, yeast, zest and salt in the bowl of a stand mixer. Work in the softened butter with the tips of your fingers. Add the lukewarm milk. Depending on your flour, you may have to add a little more milk or need to hold a little back. Start with 300 gr. of milk and add more if needed; what you are looking for is a slightly slack dough that will be easy to roll out in strands. Mix until the dough is well-developed, it should pass the window pane test; approximately 10-15 minutes on medium low-speed.

Lightly oil a container, transfer the dough and coat all around with the oil for a first rise of about 45 minutes. After 45 minutes, divide the dough into equal pieces of about 45 grams. You should end up with 14-16 dough pieces. Form the dough pieces into balls and let them rest for 20 minutes, so the dough will be slack enough to form into strands. First roll out all the balls into short strands of about 20 cm.

Mix the brown sugar with the cinnamon and cover your work surface with it . Then roll out the strands in the sugar mixture to a length of about 40 cm. If the dough really resists, you might have to go for a third round of rolling strands after giving it another 10 minutes to relax. Shape the strands into spirals or knots. The spiral is the more traditional way of shaping, but since the rolls come out of the oven really dark brown, I prefer to knot them, just to avoid associations that I won't go into here and now :-)

For spirals: start in the middle and just drape the dough in circles. It is okay to make it look a little rustic and not too neat! For knots: Place a strand horizontally in front of you. Take the ends and form two loops, leaving some space in the middle for proofing. Make a knot on each side of the loop.

Place the formed bolus on a baking sheet, cover and let them proof until puffed and doubled in size, for about 1 hour. Preheat the oven to 250°C/475°F. Bake the "Zeeuwse Bolussen" for about 8 minutes. You want them to be just done, so keep a close eye on your oven. Too long and they will be crusty, too short and they will be gooey.

Please feel free to comment and subscribe if you want me to keep you updated. Also I want to ask you to endorse my growing BreadLab initiative on Facebook; every like gets me closer to realizing a 6 episode "breadomentary", chasing the beast bread the world has to offer. Thanks in advance!

Freerk

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