The Fresh Loaf

News & Information for Amateur Bakers and Artisan Bread Enthusiasts

Vintage Bread 1861

  • Pin It
Faith in Virginia's picture
Faith in Virginia

Vintage Bread 1861

I have been digging in some of my old cook books and I ran across a new term for me.  "Aërated Bread"  With a search I found this page and keep in mind this is from the year 1861.

http://www.vintagerecipes.net/books/bookofhouseholdmanagement/breadmaking_aerated_bread.php

I doubt anyone has attempted this process here.  I think would take special equipment.  So just how would you make bread and infuse carbon dioxide into the dough to get a light and fluffy loaf? Carbonated Water?

Apparently this process never took off.  I'm thinking with the lack of yeast or a starter or fermentation the bread would lack in flavor.

I just found this interesting and thought I would share.  If you have any more information I would love to see it.

enjoy

Faith

Faith in Virginia's picture
Faith in Virginia

http://archive.org/details/onhealthymanufac00richiala

I found the book and was able to download a pdf for free.  I have not been able to read the whole thing yet but from what I have read it is very interesting.

Faith

tracker914's picture
tracker914

if it's trying to explain Baking powder/Baking soda. Their output is bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.

Intersting read, Faith

Thanks

Angelo

breadforfun's picture
breadforfun

In 1862, this patent was issued:

http://www.google.com/patents/US36134?pg=PA1&dq=aerated+bread&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PYb1UL7vN-iAiwKO-YGQBw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=aerated%20bread&f=false

Carbon dioxide is described as the reaction between sulphuric or carbonic acid with lime or baking soda, and the gas is introduced into the dough via a tube to a "vessel."

A few years later, an "improved method" was patented:

http://www.google.com/patents/US52252?pg=PA3&dq=aerated+bread&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PYb1UL7vN-iAiwKO-YGQBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=aerated%20bread&f=false

According to this, if I am reading it correctly, the dough is passed through a high-pressure chamber that infuses carbon dioxide gas into it.

It's not too surprising that the technique didn't survive since yeast performs the same purpose more efficiently.  The patents refer to fermentation and discuss that the alcohol produced could be used to fuel the reaction to make it more cost-effective (my 21st century jargon).  Is it possible that they were trying to eliminate the alcohol in bread? It seems to imply that unfermented bread is desirable.  Since biochemistry wasn't invented yet, they likely didn't know that the alternate pathway for yeast "fermentation" is called respiration and produces CO2 without producing alcohol when oxygen is present.

-Brad

Faith in Virginia's picture
Faith in Virginia

Brad,  looks like they used something like a pressurized mixer like on a cement truck.

Looking at the process I'll bet it made something worse than Wonder Bread ( wonder if its bread) light fluffy and tasteless.

Still I just love this kind of stuff...and it relates to bread :-)

Thanks for the links.

Faith

mgbetz's picture
mgbetz

Very interesting!  The great grandaddy of  Wonderbread, in a sense.

Re-enacting mid to late 19th century events at historical sites is another hobby of mine. When working at the kitchen of Fort Tejon CA a few years ago, I made sourdough bread on the open hearth (cast iron dutch oven) several times.  When researching that era, "light bread" vs sour dough was much preferred. People looked down their noses at the Miner's sour dough. Some thought of it as a poor substitute. Pity!  

Also came across printed ads in old books mid 19th century for "yeast powder'. Beware! It is a substitute for yeast, not dry powdered yeast. Will search for the brand in my notes later, but it was single action tartrate baking powder, a step up from pearl ash and saleratus.

 

Gwen in L.A.

aka Mrs Betz, the maid of all work

 

Faith in Virginia's picture
Faith in Virginia

What I'm finding fascinating is the availability of commercial yeast time line.  I am interested to find out when "home grown yeast" went out of fashion and cake yeast took over.   I was surprised that in 1860 cake yeast was well established and sourdough was out and considered old fashioned.   That was over 150 years ago.  I need to do some research on that when I have time.

mgbetz's picture
mgbetz

I was also fascinated how quickly commercial yeast became popular. However, remembering when Permanent Press fabrics came out--and ironing almost died out, my suspicion it was well received  in the same way. :)

Receipts (recipes) for a cup of yeast puzzled me also, figured they were using a non-sour starter. Cook would adjust hydration of loaf as expected. 

Sidenote: It is very difficult to find fresh yeast around here, I like using that. However, the size of blocks has changed on that. Supposedly about 1940, the block was the size of a large butterpat, in L.A. at least. The foil wrapped cube (such as Fleishman's) was double the volume.  No wonder some of my 1930's breads were so light and yeasty LOL

 

 

 

JOHN01473's picture
JOHN01473

on the Great British Food Revival in 2011 Chef Michel Roux Jnr looked into bread production.

he investigated some thing called the Chorleywood bread process.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chorleywood_bread_process

Air is introduced into the mixer under pressure to introduce bubbles into the dough, this pressure is controlled to keep gas bubbles at the desired size and number. Typical operating regimes are pressure followed by vacuum, and atmospheric followed by vacuum. The pressure control during mixing affects the fineness of crumb texture in the finished bread.

The Aerated Bread Company, an English bread company which operated from in 1862 to the 1980s, used carbon dioxide instead of yeast.

The Aerated Bread Company Ltd (Aërated Bread Company or A.B.C.) was founded in the United Kingdom (U.K.) in 1862 by Dr. John Dauglish. Its aim was to mass produce healthy, additive-free breads using a new bread leavening technology invented by the company's founder. Dauglish's system was a yeast-free, carbonic acid gas (i.e., carbon dioxide) method of bread making: "Nothing but flour, water, a little salt and gas—no sweat! It was liked by many."[1] In addition to the bakery, the company was especially well known for its many tea shops that operated from 1864.

John

 

mgbetz's picture
mgbetz

Good find, John. Thank you!