Lactobacillus San Francisco Sourdough
I came across the following link/article on Lactobacillus San Francisco posted in 2004 by Mark Preston on a site called “Danger! Men Cooking!” http://dangermencooking.blogspot.com/2004/10/i-promised-to-write-about-fermented.html
The article describes how over several weeks one could replicate the SF Sourdough culture started by Isadore Boudin himself in 1849. And be able to maintain it locally with minimal effort after the initial series of builds and at the recommended temperature for various steps.
This article is fascinating because many posts on TFL and the web in general say that any culture purchased or created will eventually assume the characteristics of the bacteria naturally present on the wheat, i.e. being local to where the wheat was grown. Or that over time it assumes the characteristics of the wild bacteria present in the bakery/household in which the culture is maintained. Or a combination of both, which to me seems to be plausible- i.e. that once started from say a purchased culture, you cannot maintain it. Is in fact that assumption correct?
The author says otherwise referencing a $192 technical book “HANDBOOK OF DOUGH FERMENTATIONS by Karel Kulp and Klaus Lorenz. (NY: Marcel Dekker, c.2003), some 328 pages long. The book is listed on Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Dough-Fermentations-Science-Technology/dp/0824742648
To quote: “Well theories on that point differ radically. Some say the microorganisms are wild and floating around in the air. Others speculate that the quality of the flour has much to do with the fermentations. I have read a serious scientific paper on the quantity of lactobacillus microorganisms being greater on wheat near humanly populated areas than wheat in less populated areas. Another research paper says that there are about 400 types of microorganisms in a fermenting loaf. Other papers say that the sanfranciscensis microorganism is about 36% of that 400, that is to say, by quantity it predominates, naturally. So the question becomes how to nurture those San Francisco organisms along and not get anything bad going. That's what the Handbook of Dough Fermentations is all about. The piece of information lacking was to not make bread after two to three or four days, but that the starter needed about two to three weeks of refreshments. And it needed specific amounts of water and flour and at very specific intervals.”
Boudin is the oldest sourdough bakery in San Francisco. Mr. Boudin came from a village along the Swiss French border. The boat trip across the ocean allowed no baking so it likely took weeks of feeding to establish the culture. The Boudin Bakery still uses the same starter and the production method at the bakery also has to be taken into account. I can honestly say it is the best sourdough that I have ever tasted and a must stop attraction for those visiting the Wharf in San Francisco.
My homemade culture using fresh ground rye has thrived for years. Over time I have come to have a better understanding of some of the variables that we control to target a given bread style. These variables combined with the fermentation times and temperatures allows for an infinite range of bread styles – from a hardly noticeable and not desirable sour (baguettes) to the high levels typical in Northern/Eastern Europe as in Polish, Czech, German or Russian ryes.
The essential elements are by controlling the buildup for a given bake in terms of:
1) Intervals between feedings/buildup
2) Percentage of starter used in the final recipe
3) Temperature during the builds
4) Hydration levels of the starter ranging from stiff to very loose (75% to 150%, each giving a different characteristic).
5) Fermentation time and temperature of the dough
Yet as good as they are, the taste is not that of Lactobacillus Sanfranciscensis. Should I be happy? Yes. Yet the pursuit of bread perfection is never achieved and continues!
The feeding cycle expansion from the initial start point is 312,500 times! And the feeding cycles alternate between 8 and 16 hour cycles and follow specific temperature guidelines. The author says after a few weeks you will have it. Note: regarding the build table shown, there is a typo in the row that shows 12,500 water – the flour amount should be 10,000 not 1,000.
In summary, a very interesting read that represents one approach that surely is not the final word on the subject. There are many articles on the web regarding Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri, likely counter to some of the points raised in the post. This is leading me to do more research and explore other information on the web regarding this infamous grouping of complementary bacterias.
I would also like to hear from people that may have purchased the SF cultures and whether or not they evolved over time to something other than when started? That would seem an easy way to start if in fact one could maintain it so it doesn’t evolve away going forward. Thanks to all…