The Fresh Loaf

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varda

Word of the day: unseasonable.  I've been hearing that a lot lately.   What it means in practice is that after carefully checking the expected weather for the next few days, I decided it really was safe to bake in my WFO in March!    Last year my first bake was in July, but that was because I had to rebuild the oven first.    This year, the oven came through the winter more or less intact.    I pulled off the tarps and burned a bit of brush in there yesterday to warm it up.    Then today, fired it up and baked.   It was that simple.    Except it may take me awhile to get back into the routine.   This bread was totally overproofed since it took me forever to get a fire going and the weather is so warm that proofing was fast.    If I had baked it in that state in my gas oven, it would have just sunk like a stone.   Also, I didn't quite manage to get a steam pan into the oven.   Too much to keep track of.   Next time.  

 

This bread is a multigrain sourdough.   The wrinkle is that I threw in my leftover rye malt.   My son said it was delicious.    I thought it tasted vaguely similar to eating a beer.   Not sure why, since most beer isn't made with rye.    So actually pretty good, but strange.  

Here is my hobo oven ready for baking:

Update:   Formula and Method

3/20/2012

 

 

 

 

Sourdough with Rye Malt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4:35 PM

9:30 PM

 

 

 

Starter

35

 

 

 

 

 

KAAP

20

47

62

129

 

 

Dark Rye

1

3

3

7

5%

 

Water

14

55

100

169

125%

 

 

 

 

 

305

 

 

 

Final

Starter

Total

Percent

 

 

KAAP

350

123

473

75%

 

 

Dark Rye

 

7

7

1%

 

 

Whole Rye

50

 

50

8%

 

 

Spelt

50

 

50

8%

 

 

Whole Wheat

50

 

50

8%

 

 

Water

285

162

447

71%

 

 

Salt

12

 

12

1.9%

 

 

Rye Malt

17

 

17

2.7%

 

 

Starter

292

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1106

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mix all but salt and autolyse for 45 minutes

 

 

 

Add salt.   Mix in KA at low speed for 25 minutes

 

 

until dough is pretty strong and doesn't just flow down

 

 

when you lift the mixer arm

 

 

 

 

BF for 3 hours with no S&F

 

 

 

 

Cut and preshape

 

 

 

 

 

Rest for 30 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

Shape and proof (2 hrs)

 

 

 

 

 

Bake for 40 minutes in WFO

 

 

 

 

            

 

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varda

Over the last few days I've been working on another Borodinsky.   I made some new rye malt, then refreshed rye sour, and scald flavored with the malt, molasses, and not quite as potent ground coriander as my last try.   I followed Andy's Feb 6 Borodinsky post, with the exception of some different timing and a little less coriander.   I cut into the loaf this morning, and felt, that maybe, just maybe I had made something close to a real Borodinsky loaf.  

Gave some to my son for breakfast - he ate it without any topping and without any complaint.   Then cut up some slices and took them to a morning meeting.   Since the people at the meeting were civilians (i.e., don't lie awake at night thinking about how to make such and such authentic Russian bread using the Auerman process) I thought they might not like it, and warned them it was very rye-y and coriandery and so forth.   But everyone ate it and most people seemed to genuinely enjoy it.    One woman mentioned that she thought it would be heavy and dense since it was mostly rye.   But it wasn't - instead very light in a rye sort of way.   

My only complaint is that the bread didn't quite hit the top of the pan, even though I thought I had the scaling (.69 of Andy's bake) perfect.   The bread obviously had some ovenspring, but rather than smoothly expanding to fill the inside of the pan, it seemed to rise as if it was uncovered and then cracked along the top.

I tried to get a very uniform paste in the pan by putting some in with a spoon and then smoothing and flattening it with a wet rubber spatula.  

My rye malt was much more successful this time.    I read through all the links people sent me - thank you.    I took Juergen's advice to raise the temperature while toasting the sprouting berries.    The color was much darker this time but I would call it ginger rather than red.    But I did get a much more powdery consistency when I ground the berries after toasting.   The potency this time around was much stronger, and I was a little afraid that I had burned it, since it had a very powerful aroma.   In retrospect I think it was fine.

Compare this with last time:

I also found what I thought was a very interesting discussion about making rye malt here.   See in particular Ron's comments in this thread.  

Baking Notes:

I always wait to use liquid rye sour until it is frothy on top.   In this case, I fed the sour in the afternoon.   Then again at night around six hours later.   Then left it overnight.   Ten hours later, it was frothy, so I combined it with the scald (made at the same time as the second sour feed) to make the sponge.   Then let ferment for 4 hours, per Andy's instructions.    I added final ingredients (rye flour, wheat flour, and salt)   and fermented for an hour.   Then spread into the pan (9 inch Pullman.)   Then proofed for only 1.5 hours rather than 3.   I used a wet finger to poke and test for elasticity, and just felt it was done earlier than expected.   Andy specifies a long bake at very low temperature with a very high temp start.   That didn't work with my schedule.   Instead I did the following.   Preheated oven to its highest temperature - 550F - for 40 minutes.   20 minutes into the preheat, I added a big pyrex lasagna pan full of water and with three towels in it.   At 40 minutes I added the loaf, and let the temperature come back up to 550F.    Then reduced heat to 350F.   At 1 hour 15 minutes into the bake, I removed the loaf from the pan, and removed the steam pan, and baked for 30 more minutes.    This time I managed to wait for around 20 hours before cutting.  

As for coriander, the first time I made this, I put in a very small amount of coriander that had been ground months before.    I think I underdid it.   Then second time, I put in freshly ground coriander at a little less than what Andy had specified.   The smell of the sponge with the coriander was overpowering to the point of being unpleasant and things didn't get any better with the bread, which failed for other reasons.   This time I scaled Andy's formula to .69 which would have called for 7g of coriander.   Instead I put in 5g of my supply of coriander which had been ground awhile ago.    This worked.   The flavor was fantastic and not overpowering.   Note that in Andy's Feb 6 post, he didn't put in the coriander until final, whereas in earlier posts, he put in with the scald.   Either way seems to be ok.  

I'm happy with this latest effort.   Thanks so much to Andy for his detailed and repeated posts on the subject.  

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varda

I have been making the same loaf of bread since Sunday and it's not even sourdough.   It is my first Pain de Mie, using the formula that Syd posted here.    Usually when people tell me what a lot of work it must be to make bread, I say it doesn't take much time or effort - mostly you let the dough do the work.   That does not hold for this bread.   Syd's instructions say to work this dough until it either has a gossamer windowpane, or your arms cramp up.   Since my arms never cramped up even though they were (and still are) extremely tired, I worked the dough with a few short breaks for an hour and 10 minutes.   No gym today.   In theory I could have used my Kitchen Aid stand mixer.   In practice it would probably have been the last time I used it.   

Since I have never made/bought/eaten this type of bread before I have no idea if it came out the way it should.  

I will say it's the most flavorful white bread I've ever tasted.  

A few baking notes:

The third day of the formula, or baking day, calls for "whole egg 140g."   I thought maybe ostrich egg?    I clicked through to the site that Syd referenced hoping for some clarification.  Unfortunately I can't read Chinese characters so no help there.   I ended up putting in 3 medium eggs which came to 156g.   Comparing my crumb to Syd's his seems to be a lot whiter, so that may have been incorrect.  

Update:   Syd's instructions call for heating the milk for the first mix (the water roux) but not for the next two.   I scalded for each of these because that's just what I do, but didn't know if it was necessary or not.  

During mixing, the dough stayed fragile until around 40 minutes.    At around 50 minutes it seemed to be getting stronger and silkier.   I went back to the Chinese site to see if they had any pictures of what it should look like.   They did.   I wasn't there yet so I kept going until an hour and ten minutes, at which point it was strong enough to twirl around like a pizza.   

Syd didn't mention steam, and I wasn't sure if that is called for in this type of bread.   Google translate was no help.   I finally decided to do steam for the first 15 minutes.   I baked one slightly smaller loaf in a pyrex bread pan (5 x 9 x 2.5 inches) and the second in my short Pullman (4 x 9 x 4).   Since I was reasonably sure that I wouldn't repeat the disaster of a few days ago where my attempt at a second Borodinsky went very wrong, I decided to cover the Pullman.   It didn't overflow.   It did reach the top.   My first success in covered Pullman baking.   I baked the Pyrex loaf at 356F (180C) for 35 minutes and the Pullman loaf for 40.   Could probably have baked each longer, but I didn't want to push it.   These aren't supposed to be crusty loaves after all, given that Pain de Mie seems to mean Crumb Bread.   (Sounds better in French.)  

Update:  I divided dough as 956g of dough into the Pullman and 820g into the Pyrex. 

So I have now baked an Asian Pain de Mie or a facsimile thereof.   Wonder how a French Pain de Mie would differ.   Just about everything I'm doing here is new to me.  I have certainly never hand-worked dough for over an hour before - maximum maybe 25 minutes.   Any suggestions for improvements are decidedly welcome.  

Oh, and incidentally this is either the 4th or 5th of Syd's formulas that I have tried, or around half of the number posted.   More please!  They are most interesting and excellent.

Bonus Rye Malt

In my efforts to make a second Borodinsky more authentic than the first, I took Janet's suggestion to make Rye Malt.  While I did find a few detailed suggestions on the web for how to do this, I still found it confusing, so I hope these documented steps will be helpful.

Step 1:   Find rye berries.   --- I found them at a food co-op in Cambridge MA which seemed to have bulk berries of many different varieties.  

Step 2:   Soak for 5 hours  --- I only soaked 60g worth because I didn't know what I was doing

Step 3:  Drain, rinse, and then keep moist while the berries sprout.   In the picture below they are just starting to sprout around 16 hours after soaking is complete.   I placed a wet paper towel on top of the berries, and had to remoisten it a few times.  

Step 4:  Put on a baking tray to dry out in the oven.    The picture at the top of the post where the berries are fully sprouted was taken 23 hours after the one above.

Step 5:   Dry out at very low heat for around 2 hours.   I kept the oven between 100F and 200F by acting as the oven thermostat. 

Step 6:   Grind them up.  I used a coffee grinder.

It's certainly not red.   I have no idea if it's Borodinsky appropriate.   But I will say that my Borodinsky didn't fail because of the malt.  

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varda

 

Tzitzel is to Borodinsky as Comfort Zone is to Total Lack of Comfort Zone.   But still, it's out there.   It has a cool name.   I like rye.   So why not.  I followed Andy's Borodinsky formula here as much as possible given different flours and malt.    To make myself feel more comfortable I made Tzitzel at the same time.   In making what is for me a very complex formula,  I felt similar to how I felt the first time I made Hamelman's Pain Au Levain - over my head.   Yesterday when I was making the rye sour for Tzitzel, a different rye sour for Borodinsky and my first time ever scald, I got everything built and put together.  Then I happened to glance at Andy's formula and realized that I had misread the amount of rye sour, by looking at the result of his first build instead of his second.  This necessitated a lengthy interaction with my spreadsheet, while I tried to figure out how to make the necessary adjustments.   Bottom line was I had enough sour for only 40% of the scald.   I'm glad I caught it in time before I mixed more than twice as much scald as required in with the sour.    I thought that I would be able to mix the scald and sour together last night to make the sponge before I went to bed, but I was waiting for the rye sour to froth - see Juergen's excellent picture here.   I know from having made Russian Rye that if you don't wait for the froth, you might as well just use the result for its cementatious properties, instead of wasting the energy to bake it.   So I let it go overnight, and then mixed the sour and scald in the morning.    Since I had a fairly small quantity of paste (this stuff is not dough)  relative to the pan, the result after baking for over an hour looked like a brick, and of course nothing like Andy's beautiful samples.   However, it did not taste like a brick.   To go back to my years of absorbing ad copy through the ether, I would say that this bread is BURSTING WITH FLAVOR (Juicy Fruit Gum - circa 1967).   No really, absolutely bursting with flavor.   I would hope to be able to make more photogenic loaves as time goes on, but for now, I'll be consoled by the taste.  I ate a piece of this with peanut butter for dinner.   Nothing else required. 

Crumb shots:   Tzitzel and Borodinsky

Tzitzel Rye Sour just before mixing the dough:

Borodinsky sponge just before mixing:

I used whole rye for the Borodinsky and for the small amount of wheat flour used Sir Lancelot high gluten because I ran out of KA Bread Flour while mixing up the Tzitzel.    I used malt syrup to replace Red Malt - best I could do for now.  I followed ITJB Old School Jewish Deli Rye as modified for Tzitzel (page 74.)  

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varda

Today I went back to Andy's Pain au Levain with Light Rye which I made last spring.  At the time I didn't know there was a difference between light rye and white rye.   I know it now, but I still have access only to White, so that's what I used again.    This bread acted like a balloon all through the preparation - I was very careful not to puncture it, and quite worried that it would deflate instead of rise in the oven, but it didn't.   Just spring and more spring. 

When it was time to shape, I didn't really - it's hard to shape a balloon -  just kind of pressed it a little and then folded it up and flipped into a lined basket.   I didn't think it would score, so I just ran my razor over some lines that had opened up during proof.   So not a tidy bread.  

After it came out of the oven, the sun was out and it was sort of pretend warm, so I took it outside to photograph.   When it hit the colder air, the loaf started singing like crazy.   I set it on the table and a hawk flew overhead.   I wasn't fast enough to catch it on the wing, but then it settled down in an oak to rest.

Then walked back through the garden, which is looking more like a garden in waiting this time of year.

My oven is waiting too it seems.   When will it be spring?

Didn't have to wait long to cut into the bread though, as it cooled quickly what with its trip outside.

    

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varda

When I was complaining the other day that I couldn't catch up with Andy, I didn't mean that I would never be a professional baker and turn out staggering numbers of authentic, healthy, artisan loaves, because of course I will never do those things.   I meant that I can't even catch up with trying to bake some of his formulas.   And he just keeps making the situation worse.    Back in November he posted wholemeal pain au levain.     I have been meaning to make it, but got distracted with mixed levains and other things and didn't get to it.   After my January croissant waistline debacle I decided that I have got to start baking more lean wholegrain breads, so that brought me back to Andy's formula.   Frankly I never expected such loft and lightness out of a 60% wholegrain bread.   But then I've never made a bread out of starter and soaker before which is what this is.  

True I was unable to follow the formula 100%.   I was a bit short of whole wheat flour so substituted in some whole rye to the soaker, and I didn't do the overnight retard immediately after the mix because it didn't fit into my schedule.   Short of those (hopefully not critical) deviations, I followed directions, and I'm glad I did.   This has a delicious crunchy, nutty flavor, and the crumb isn't the least bit gummy (ok that's how I tend to think of high percentage whole grain breads - it's my problem.)

  

 

Some baking notes: 

1. Andy's instructions call for mixing the starter, soaker, and additional flour.   Then retarding overnight.   Then Bulk Ferment for 3 hours which of course includes some warm up time.   I did not do the retard and was concerned at 1.5 hours into the bulk ferment that the dough would overferment.   I decided to end  after 2 hours, which seemed to work out.  

2. There was no call for additional water to be added to the final dough.   However, I was unable to mix the raw flour into the soaker, starter combo without a little bit of water.    Thus my hydration is 73% rather than Andy's 70%.    For a 73% hydration dough, it wasn't even slightly wet which I assume is attributable to the high percentage of whole grains.  

3. When I realized that I was short of whole wheat flour, I was scratching my head about what to add to the overnight soaker.   My husband strolled into the kitchen just as I reached this conundrum and suggested whole rye.  Despite my surprise (he's not a baker and doesn't like rye) I had to agree with his suggestion, as I thought the key point was having something that could stand up to an overnight soak without turning into gum.   Should I have done something else like whole spelt?

4.  I used King Arthur All Purpose to substitute for Carr's Special CC Flour and King Arthur Whole Wheat to substitute for Allinson's Strong Wholemeal. 

Formula and Instructions as Modified

Whole Wheat Pain Au Levain

 

 

 

 

following Andy's Wholemeal PAL formula

 

 

 

2/1/2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepare Starter day before - 2 feedings

 

 

 

1/31/2012

 

3:20 PM

9:00 PM

Total

Percent

 

Seed

50

 

 

 

 

 

KAAP

28

47

140

215

94%

 

Rye

2

3

8

13

6%

 

Water

20

34

83

137

60%

 

 

 

 

 

365

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepare soaker at 9:30 night before

 

 

 

KAWW

315

 

 

 

 

 

HM Rye

80

 

I added some whole rye to soaker since

Water

355

 

I ran out of whole wheat

 

Salt

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

762

 

 

 

 

 

dissolve salt in water, add ww flour, mix with paddle for 3 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final

Starter

Soaker

Total

Percent

 

KAAP

80

188

 

268

40%

 

Rye

 

11

80

91

14%

 

KAWW

 

 

315

315

47%

 

Water

17

120

355

492

73%

 

Salt

 

 

12

12

1.8%

 

Starter

320

 

 

 

 

 

Soaker

762

 

 

 

 

 

starter factor

0.88

 

 

 

 

 

prefermented flour

 

 

 

30%

 

Total

 

 

 

1179

 

 

Note: the 17g additional water was needed to incorporate the raw flour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mix all ingredients - first incorporate the new flour and water

 

Then mix for 7 minutes in Kitchenaid at low speed

 

 

with a couple pauses to scrape down

 

 

 

Note that dough is very strong at this point

 

 

 

Bulk ferment on counter for 1.5 hours

 

 

 

Stretch and Fold on counter very gently

 

 

 

Bulk ferment for 30 more minutes

 

 

 

Note that dough seems very fermented at this point and

 

starting to slacken

 

 

 

 

 

Cut in two and preshape

 

 

 

 

Rest 20 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

Shape into batards and place in couche seam side up

 

 

Proof for 2 hours until dough starts to soften

 

 

Flip onto peel dusted with coarse rye and slash

 

 

Bake for 20 minutes in 450F oven with steam

 

 

22 minutes without

 

 

 

 

 

 

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varda

Some time ago Franko did a great post on Tom Cat's Semolina Filone.   I pretended to make it but in fact I didn't because I used starter instead of poolish and whole durum instead of extra fancy.   Now following Karin's excellent no-discrimination policy I decided to cook from books lying under my nose, and what book could be greater (or more underutilized by  me) than Maggie Glezer's Artisan Baking.    This time I followed directions to the letter (see page 124.)  This bread is so good that someone should post on it every few months or so.   With this post, I've done my part.   

Bonus bread lessons:

1.  Different flour,  different bread.

2.  If you bake bread from a formula without following directions you haven't yet made that formula. 

 

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varda

 

After several tries at croissants, I decided that for the sake of my waistline (and those of my family) I should give it a rest.   I was thoroughly frustrated with trying to sort through multiple approaches with multiple rationales, and decided that what I really needed to do was try something else that didn't require deep study.   So I pulled out my rye and wheat starters, built them up the way I wanted to - no books in sight - and the next day mixed up some dough.   I made enough for two big loaves but decided to refrigerate one of them after shaping so we could eat both fresh instead of one fresh and one day old.   I was also interested to see if there would be any difference between them.    The short answer is a little.  

The loaf pictured above was baked with no retard.   Even though I've been working hard at developing dough and I thought I'd got it after 25 minutes on low speed in the kitchen aid, some may say it is not quite there.

I don't know.   What say you?  

The second which was in the refrigerator for 20 hours before coming out for a three hour proof had a less appealing crust, but perhaps better crumb.   So development continues in the refrigerator?

In general I was very pleased with the taste and texture of this bread which is quite light and airy, with a crisp crust (both loaves.)   The retarded loaf has just a hint of sour while the one baked same day has none. 

Here is the formula:

Rye Sour

Seed

Feeding

Total

Percents

 

 

Seed

70

 

 

 

 

 

Rye  

37

107

144

 

 

 

Water

33

106

139

96%

 

 

 

 

 

283

 

 

 

Wheat Starter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seed

30

 

 

 

 

 

KABF

3

 

3

 

 

 

KAAP

14

100

114

 

 

 

Rye

1

 

1

 

 

 

Water

13

142

155

132%

 

 

 

 

 

272

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final

Rye Sour

 Wheat

   Total

  Percents

 

KABF

 

 

3

3

0%

 

KAAP

500

 

108

608

79%

 

Rye

 

138

1

139

18%

 

Whole Wheat

16

 

 

16

2%

 

Water

251

133

148

532

69%

 

Salt

14

 

 

14

1.8%

 

Rye sour

271

 

 

 

33%

 

Wheat starter

260

 

 

 

 

 

Rye factor

0.96

 

 

 

 

 

Wheat factor

0.96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mix all but salt and autolyse for 55 minutes

 

 

 

Add salt and mix on first speed of KA for 25 minutes including

 

 

several scrape downs

 

 

 

 

 

BF for 2.5 hours with 2 S&F on counter

 

 

 

 

Cut in half, preshape and rest for 20 minutes

 

 

 

Shape and refrigerate one loaf in brotform

 

 

 

Proof the other in couche for 2 hours 15 minutes until soft

 

 

Bake at 450 for 20 minutes with steam, 22 minutes without

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After 20 hours remove loaf from refrigerator and proof on counter for 3 hours.

Bake at 450 for 20 minutes with steam, 22 minutes without

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
    
   
      
     
    
    
   
   
       
 
   
       
varda's picture
varda

Today I was planning to make Vermont Sourdough with Whole Wheat as part of a return to good healthy eating, but it was not to be.    I had added the starter to the dough and mixed it up, when my nose was assaulted by something NOT RIGHT.   In the past I've ignored these warnings figuring that whatever was not right would disappear in the baking.   But I've learned.   So out with the old dough, in with the new.   I mixed up another liquid starter, but I really wanted bread today, so after 3 hours, I decided to improvise.   Instead of nice, lean Vermont Sourdough,   I started the year with something sweet:   Cinnamon Swirl. 

The last time I made something like this, both my husband and son informed me that I'd skimped unduly on the cinnamon, sugar, and butter.    So this time I didn't.    To say the least.   I threw in the unfinished starter, and then some yeast for good measure.   It rose like gangbusters.   Here is what I came up with. 

STARTER

 

Feed

        Total

        Percent

Ripe Starter

100

 

 

 

KAAP

57

100

157

 

Rye

3

 

3

 

Water

40

150

190

119%

 

 

 

350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FINAL

STARTER

TOTAL

PERCENT

KAAP

550

153

703

100%

Rye

 

3

3

0%

WW

 

 

0

0%

Milk

164

 

164

23%

Water

127

187

314

44%

Butter

15

 

15

 

Yeast

10

 

10

 

Salt

12

 

12

1.7%

Starter

343

 

 

22%

 

 

 

1221

 

 

Take firm starter and build as above.    Leave at warm room temperature.    Scald milk in microwave for 1.5 minutes.   Add butter to it and let cool.    After starter has ripened for three hours, mix all ingredients.   Let double (this took 45 minutes.)   Press out into a long flat rectangle with short side in front.   Brush with melted butter.   Sprinkle very thickly with cinnamon sugar.   I used two sticks of cinnamon that I ground in a coffee grinder mixed with around 3/4 cups of sugar.   Roll up without pressing in the sides while shaping.   Place in bread pan with seam down.   Brush top with remaining melted butter and cinnamon sugar.  Let rise to over top of pan (this took around 45 minutes.)   Bake at 370 with no steam for 45 minutes.    Then remove from pan and bake for 15 more minutes.  Then enjoy and follow through on resolutions tomorrow. 

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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varda

The many nice bagel posts lately have spurred me on toward bagel making.    I was excited to see that In The Jewish Bakery has a recipe for Montreal bagels.   I grew up on New York Bagels which had made their way to St. Louis by the 1960s.    It was a revelation when I stopped for a snack in the Ottawa Airport one day to find a bagel that was completely different but quite delicious.   That was almost 20 years ago, and since I stopped working in Canada,  Montreal bagels have been few and far between.   That is set to change.

Ok.   My shaping needs work, but that doesn't interfere with breakfast for lunch. 

These are quick bagels - from mix to plate in around 2 hours, and so not as much flavor as their overnight retarded New York cousins.   But delicious all the same, a tasty treat. 

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